{"3":{"1002":{"lat":"39.7689675021","lon":"-86.1751089853","title":"Sewer Outfall ","content":"

Sewer Outfall <\/h3>Look down toward the river and you\u2019ll see the end of a large pipe emerging from below the path on which you stand. If you look in the opposite direction, on the other side of the path you\u2019ll notice the landscape curves softly, directing any rain or snowmelt into the pipe and then into the White River.\r\n\r\nThis area of the park drains storm water that does not get absorbed by the soil or trees directly to the river. Other parts of the city that are farther away from the river use an underground storm sewer system to direct storm water to one of the city\u2019s water treatment facilities."},"999":{"lat":"39.7679980292","lon":"-86.1734844314","title":"McCormick's Rock","content":"

McCormick's Rock<\/h3>The first European settlers of Indianapolis were John, James, and Samuel McCormick, three brothers who arrived here in 1820. John McCormick built a log cabin on the east bank of the White River, close to the mouth of Fall Creek, at the site marked with this memorial. It was in this home that Indianapolis was chosen to be Indiana\u2019s state capital."},"988":{"lat":"39.80414728850","lon":"-86.19669990040","title":"Water loss in infrastructure","content":"

Water loss in infrastructure<\/h3>If you look to the east, away from the river and beyond the park, you\u2019ll see the Riverside neighborhood. The community is participating in a unique experiment that uses the neighborhood as a living laboratory to identify, evaluate and demonstrate technical solutions that will improve environmental quality and infrastructural efficiency while creating entrepreneurship opportunities and developing new jobs.\r\n\r\nThis project is called The Riverside Watershed Environmental Living Lab System and it is being conducted by IUPUI in collaboration with the Riverside Civic League. It will focus on obtaining inspection data and maps that relate to the different water systems in the neighborhood and attempt to quantify where water is being lost through leakage, infiltration and inflow. Then the project team will identify potential technical solutions and conduct pilot projects to evaluate them, measuring the decrease in water loss.\r\n\r\nThe main objective of the project is to advance technical solutions that affect the entire water system in Indianapolis and to inspire entrepreneurship and create new job opportunities. Riverside is ideally situated for this program since it is surrounded by waterways on three sides - the White River, Fall Creek and the Canal, and is adjacent to the IUPUI campus.\r\n\r\nRWELLS is designed as a model that can be replicated throughout the country, providing an example of a self-sustainable project that assists communities as they attempt to achieve net zero energy, water and waste management. It provides entrepreneurs with the opportunity to showcase their latest technologies in water and energy saving, storm water retention, re-infiltration systems, and energy-waste recycling. This process results in experiential learning, inviting Riverside community members to participate and influence the changes happening in their neighborhood."},"986":{"lat":"39.83642432420","lon":"-86.17651767890","title":"Canal and River","content":"

Canal and River<\/h3>When it was first designed, the Central Canal was meant to provide an alternate trade route for commercial goods, after the first steamboat that tried to make it to Indianapolis in 1831 rand aground on its return trip \u2013 the river was not navigable enough.\r\n\r\nThe canal was to extend from Peru, IN down the Mississinewa River Valley to the White River, through Indianapolis and on to Worthington. At the time, the rail system was not yet developed, and rivers and streams were used as the main means of transportation by Native Americans and early pioneers. As stated by Benjamin Franklin \u201cRivers are ungovernable things\u2026 Canals are quiet and very manageable\u201d. The entire north-east region was inspired by the initial success of the Erie Canal that connected the upper Hudson River and the Niagara River north of Buffalo and on to Lake Erie.\r\n\r\nLegislation was passed and contracts were signed to build the Central Canal. The canal was never built in full because of financial and political hurdles. A 24 mile section was dug in Marion County, and in June of 1839 water was first let into the canal at the feeder in Broad Ripple. In the early 1870s the lower portions of the canal from Market Street to Pleasant Run was sold, and after a sewer was laid in the bed of the canal, a railroad was built over it. The canal has been privately owned since 1850.\r\n\r\nAfter completion, transportation along the Canal was never connected at either end permitting transportation to other than local commercial areas, but its use as a source of water power was significant.\r\n\r\nThe use of the Canal remained consistent during the first half of the 20th<\/sup> century until in the late 1960s part of the Canal was forced underground because an interstate road system was constructed through its bed. In 1969 the Indianapolis Water Company discontinued using the Canal for a source of water power at its pumping station on West Washington Street and thereafter made the \"downtown\" portion (south of 16th Street) available for sale."},"980":{"lat":"39.76912943570","lon":"-86.17525538670","title":"Indy Industry","content":"

Indy Industry<\/h3>South of where you stand used to be the Kingan & Company pork packaging facility, built in 1862 and operated until 1966. Kingan & Company was one of the world\u2019s largest meat packinghouses in its day. Animals were delivered directly to the fifteen-acre facility from livestock pens located close to rail yards on the west side of the White River. It was part of an extensive network of pork and beef packers that was located in downtown Indianapolis along the White River.\r\n\r\nThe major push forward in the city\u2019s industrial development began in 1850 largely as a result of the railroads. Many of these new factories were built along the banks of the White River and used river water in their production, whether as a source of power, a component in their products, to clean their facilities, or as dumping grounds for their industrial waste.\r\n\r\nThe environmental costs of industrialization in Indianapolis were severe, but probably not as harsh as in many other American cities, mostly due to the diverse nature of the city\u2019s industry."},"978":{"lat":"39.76985972720","lon":"-86.17702160720","title":"Stickball Court","content":"

Stickball Court<\/h3>Games have always been an important social activity in Native American cultures, involving participants of all ages. The Miami of Indiana played two basic types of traditional games. The first were games of chance, based primarily on guessing. The other games were more physical and were usually played with an object of some kind.\r\n\r\nLook in the direction opposite of the river. On the top of the hill, you\u2019ll see a tall stick marking the court of a stick ball game, an early version of the game we now call lacrosse. It is one of the oldest team sports played in North America. There is evidence that similar games were played as early as the seventeenth century. Traditional games were often major events that lasted several days and had as many as a thousand participants.\r\n\r\nToday lacrosse is played at many Miami gatherings throughout the year."},"975":{"lat":"39.76762082310","lon":"-86.17257700070","title":"Canal Outfall","content":"

Canal Outfall<\/h3>The Central Canal was intended to serve as a commercial transportation route, but since only a portion of its originally planned length was constructed, it was never used for that purpose. Instead, the canal was used as a power source for the water company and for some of the industrial facilities built along its banks. In 1904 the water company started using the canal as a source of drinking water, which was purified before being distributed to consumers.\r\n\r\nIn the 1960s part of the canal\u2019s path was forced underground to allow for construction of a new interstate. In 1976 the water company deeded the portion of the canal south of 16th Street to the city, and the canal was drained and rebuilt with concrete. The water that you see in this section of the canal is ground water used in the geothermal heating and cooling systems of the downtown skyscrapers. The water is not potable, but it is clean enough to be discharged into the river."},"972":{"lat":"39.76760765120","lon":"-86.17265946960","title":"Pump House","content":"

Pump House<\/h3>During much of the Twentieth Century, the Pump House at White River State Park relied on the power of falling water from the Central Canal to run three massive hydraulic pumps. \u00a0In turn, the pumps supplied Indianapolis with one third of its clean water.\r\n\r\nEvery day, the pump at Washington Street pushed 10 to 15 million gallons of filtered drinking water from the Riverside Station Reservoir into the city\u2019s main supply pipes. It took 16 gallons of water from the Central Canal to generate enough power to move one gallon of drinking water into the city. The gradual 30-foot drop in elevation along the length of the Canal forced water through a pair of turbines in the Pump House, generating about 1,000 horsepower every day. The gravity-powered system was simple and effective, but far from perfect. Ice in the winter and insufficient Canal water in the summer could shut down the pumps, which led to the installation of a back-up electric pump in 1925.\r\n\r\nThis system continued until 1969, when the entire Pump House was closed. The building was gradually restored during the 1980s and now serves as a visitor center for White River State Park and as the offices of the White River Park Development Commission."},"970":{"lat":"39.76755710380","lon":"-86.17269083180","title":"Rivers and watersheds","content":"

Rivers and watersheds<\/h3>Each river is the central axis or spine of a drainage basin, also called a watershed. The White River watershed comprises a west fork and east fork, and contains many smaller watersheds called subwatersheds. The White River, in turn, is a subwatershed in larger watersheds.\r\n\r\nThe combined area of the White-Patoka River watershed is about twelve thousand square miles, which is one-third of the total land area of Indiana. The White-Patoka watershed is part of the Wabash watershed, which is itself part of the Mississippi watershed. The Mississippi watershed, the largest in the United States, is 1,151,000 square miles.\r\n\r\nThe largest watershed in the world is that of the Amazon River. It covers 2,720,000 square miles."},"968":{"lat":"39.77251315070","lon":"-86.18453581480","title":"Floodplains","content":"

Floodplains<\/h3>Flood plains are a natural feature of rivers and can be beneficial for a number of reasons.\u00a0 They reduce the number and severity of floods, minimize source water pollution, filter storm water, provide habitat for plants and animals, and offer aesthetic beauty and outdoor recreation benefits. During high water events, some of the water is absorbed by the flood plain, helping to keep the river from overflowing and prevent severe erosion.\u00a0 The absorbed water can then be returned to the stream during times of low water.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 The vegetation helps filter contaminants out of the water flowing into the river and provides shade for the adjacent rivers and streams, increasing dissolved oxygen levels and consequently improving habitat for aquatic plants and animals."},"966":{"lat":"39.77333773320","lon":"-86.18539733060","title":"Wildlife","content":"

Wildlife<\/h3>In the fall of 1999, wildlife here consisted of mice, voles, and about six bird species, primarily consisting of pigeons, starlings, and some swallows under the bridges. During the initial site preparation, no reptiles or amphibians were observed as the mown turf grass offered no place for them to live. In the spring of 2000, logs washed up during a flood. This time they were allowed to stay and almost immediately bullfrogs were heard calling. Over 100 bird species have now been observed on the flood plain, including migrating birds. Osprey can be seen fishing in the river, and fox, coyote, deer, beaver, muskrat, raccoons, possums, rabbits, and squirrels can all be seen on the flood plain."},"964":{"lat":"39.77627750550","lon":"-86.18758441550","title":"Floodplain Plants","content":"

Floodplain Plants<\/h3>In addition to the trees planted for the ARBOR project, many plants, shrubs and trees grew on their own. Early in the project most of the plants were non-native, weedy species that could quickly grow on the active flood plain. With time, native and non-native shrubs and trees have colonized the site. The most common shrub is the non-native, invasive bush honeysuckle. The most common non-native trees on the flood plain are Siberian elm and white mulberry. The most common native tree that has colonized the floodplain is the silver maple. Smaller numbers of other native tree species are also appearing on the flood plain."},"961":{"lat":"39.77721631220","lon":"-86.18834656410","title":"Watershed","content":"

Watershed<\/h3>A watershed is an area of land from which all precipitation eventually flows into the same stream. The quality and quantity of water in the White River at this site is heavily influenced by what happens upstream. Industry and agriculture affect the quality of water and the types of pollutants that can be found in it. Conversely, materials that enter the river system in Indianapolis will impact water quality downstream of the city.\r\n\r\nLandscaping that is rich with native vegetation has been installed in this area to slow down the flow of storm water and filter it before it makes its way into the river."},"959":{"lat":"39.77817983260","lon":"-86.18867241450","title":"Restoration site tree selection","content":"

Restoration site tree selection<\/h3>Tree species selected for planting include native species that grew in the Tipton Till Plain Natural Region of central Indiana. Extremely rare or species from special habitats were excluded.\u00a0 Planted tree species included hawthorn, honey locust, swamp white oak, chinquapin oak, red maple, silver maple, hackberry, American sycamore, cottonwood, green ash, and black willow."},"955":{"lat":"39.78100655570","lon":"-86.18409209430","title":"Fall Creek","content":"

Fall Creek<\/h3>The meeting point of Fall Creek and the White River was the site of some of the earliest settlements in Indianapolis. By 1840 Indianapolis had grown into a small town of approximately 2500 inhabitants. The city\u2019s population grew dramatically between 1850 and 1870, and a growing number of outhouses caused many environmental problems including likely contamination of groundwater. After 1870 the city installed its first underground sewer system, which relieved some of the pressure in the city but in fact just moved the problem elsewhere by discharging untreated sewage directly into the river.\r\n\r\nThe city finally opened its first sewage treatment plant in 1925, after farmers who owned land downstream from Indianapolis sued the city because the water that came flowing south was so polluted they could no longer use it to water their crops."},"953":{"lat":"39.78540966840","lon":"-86.18680662980","title":"Railroad Bridge","content":"

Railroad Bridge<\/h3>The ability to efficiently move people and goods to, through, and between cities was critical to the development of the United States from an agrarian, or farm-based, country to a world-class power. This continues to hold true today.\r\n\r\nThe White River proved to be not deep enough for efficient water-based transportation, but Indianapolis\u2019s location in the center of the Midwest, along with the availability of coal as a low-cost energy source, enabled the city to become a production hub for the expanding railroad systems of the 19th and early 20th Centuries.\u00a0\u00a0 At its peak, 16 different lines came into the city. This is a live track that today carries goods for the CSXT rail line, which begins north of the river along the canal and extends southeast around the center of the city.\u00a0 It is part of the Beltline system that was designed to avoid conflicts between trains and cars in the central business district."},"951":{"lat":"39.78761175640","lon":"-86.19395921480","title":"16th Street Dam","content":"

16th Street Dam<\/h3>The Emrichsville Dam is one of four dams constructed on the White River in Marion County. It was built in the early twentieth century under the supervision of the City Landscape Architect, George E. Kessler. It is a low-head dam that allows water to spill over the dam into the lower area. The dam slows the flow of water, creating a pool of water north of it known locally as Lake Indy. The lake was used for recreation including boating, fishing, and water sports.\r\n\r\nToday the dam is not used as part of the city\u2019s infrastructure, but it does help slow down erosion on the banks of the river by slowing down the water speed."},"949":{"lat":"39.78888804030","lon":"-86.19593809430","title":"16th Street Bridge","content":"

16th Street Bridge<\/h3>The bridge you see here today was constructed after the demolition of the historic Emrichsville Bridge, which was built here in 1906. The entrance to Riverside Park was marked with a great arch flanked by two towers. The bridge was three hundred feet long and was supported by three steel-reinforced concrete arches clad in stone. Sidewalks on both sides of the bridge led directly into the park boulevard.\r\n\r\nThe Emrichsville Bridge was the last of four large bridges built over the White River to replace older bridges that were severely damaged in the flood of 1904. It symbolized the spirit of the City Beautiful movement that engulfed American cities in the late 1800s. The movement aimed to solve problems of overcrowding and pollution in the cities and emphasized park and boulevard planning and pollution regulation.\r\n\r\nThe Emrichsville Bridge was replaced by a new bridge and torn down in 1949, due mostly to increased vehicular traffic between downtown and the growing suburbs."},"945":{"lat":"39.79385324310","lon":"-86.19995962780","title":"Memorial Grove","content":"

Memorial Grove<\/h3>The Civil War played a significant role in the history of the White River. As President Abraham Lincoln sent out calls for more volunteers, camps were built in and near Indianapolis to train them.\u00a0 Some of the largest were\u00a0 found at Camp Sullivan, which is now Military Park; Camp Morton; Camp McClellan, which is now Ellenberger Park; and Camp Robinson along the\u00a0 west bank of the White River, near Cold Springs Road in Riverside Park. A total of 24 camps were constructed.\u00a0 Some, such as Camp Morton and Camp Sullivan, were converted into holding camps for Civil War prisoners.\u00a0 A plaque embedded in a rock at the top of the hill commemorates these veterans.\r\n\r\nTo memorialize the dead of the First World War, groves of trees were planted, with each tree identified with a soldier\u2019s name.\u00a0 Three groves can be found in Brookside Park, Garfield Park and the Memorial Grove at Municipal Gardens in Riverside Regional Park.\u00a0 This grove is planted in front of the Civil War memorial."},"943":{"lat":"39.79625083850","lon":"-86.19683264220","title":"Canoe Access Area","content":"

Canoe Access Area<\/h3>All Indian nations living in the Midwest are part of the Woodlands Culture Area, which is comprised of tribes whose cultures were based on the resources of the vast forests in the eastern United States. Aboriginal Indiana was unique because it had both forests and prairie grasslands.\u00a0 The tribes of the Indiana regions, with territories that span the Ohio River, Wabash River and Great Lakes region, had major centers of trade around what is now Fort Wayne, Indiana on the Maumee River, and Cahokia in Illinois. These functioned as free trade zones, where friends and enemy tribes mingled to exchange goods."},"941":{"lat":"39.79902348830","lon":"-86.19507181290","title":"Indy Green Infrastructure","content":"

Indy Green Infrastructure<\/h3>Green infrastructure is a general term used for a variety of methods that employ processes and services provided by natural ecosystems to design and sustain the built environment.\r\n\r\nRain gardens are a type of green infrastructure. They are bioretention basins that contain plants that can absorb and clean storm water, which slows the water flow and alleviates pressure on the city\u2019s storm water pipes. Green roofs are another example of green infrastructure: they allow storm water to be absorbed and help insulate the spaces they cover.\r\n\r\nThe city of Indianapolis is incorporating sustainable green infrastructure into several of its construction projects on roads, sidewalks, and sewers, as well as working to encourage private sector participation. Planting native trees and rain gardens and installing rain barrels are just a few ways in which Indianapolis residents can participate and contribute to the effort of creating a cleaner, healthier water system and a more sustainable city.\r\n\r\nVisit indy.gov\/sustainindy to learn more about small changes you can make at home to help develop the city\u2019s green infrastructure system.\r\n\r\nTo learn how to make your own rain garden or native planting area and register it with the city\u2019s program, visit: http:\/\/www.indy.gov\/eGov\/City\/DPW\/SustainIndy\/WaterLand\/GreenInfra\/Pages\/RainGardenResources.aspx<\/a>"},"938":{"lat":"39.80006439890","lon":"-86.19512402760","title":"Taggart Memorial","content":"

Taggart Memorial<\/h3>The Taggart memorial is a monument to Thomas Taggart, an Irish immigrant who served as the mayor of Indianapolis for three successive terms beginning in 1895. He spent four million dollars\u2014an unprecedented sum\u2014on public works, primarily bridges over Fall Creek and land acquisitions for public parks.\r\n\r\nTaggart purchased over nine hundred acres along the White River to form the core of the public park system that exists today.\u00a0 He firmly believed citizens deserved green space for reflection and recreation, and consistently made park improvements through the implementation of landscaping, water features, and walking paths and benches.\u00a0 He also began developing a boulevard system for the city.\r\n\r\nThis neoclassical memorial was erected in 1931, two years after Taggart\u2019s death."},"936":{"lat":"39.80158494550","lon":"-86.19540765070","title":"History of African American settlement along the river","content":"

History of African American settlement along the river<\/h3>African Americans have had a presence in Indianapolis since its establishment in 1820. During the Civil War many blacks, most of them fugitive slaves from Kentucky and Tennessee, moved into the state. By 1900 African Americans made up almost 10% of the population.\r\n\r\nMost African Americans lived in an area slightly north and west of the center of the city, in the area of the fourth ward. The old fourth ward was located between the White River and Mississippi Street, in an area that is today occupied mostly by the IUPUI campus. The central canal spanned the length of the ward, and black-owned businesses were concentrated along Indiana Avenue.\r\n\r\nIn March of 1913 the city was struck with the worst flood in its history. Ten thousand homes were inundated, and naturally, the neighborhoods closest to the river and other waterways were damaged the most. Following the flood, the city started many infrastructure projects to protect the downtown neighborhoods from future floods. The levee you are standing on now was one of those projects."},"934":{"lat":"39.80410819510","lon":"-86.19667628260","title":"Water use in park","content":"

Water use in park<\/h3>The Indianapolis park system was designed by George E. Kessler, the city\u2019s landscape architect, in the early twentieth century. Kessler based his plan on the city\u2019s existing natural resources and decided to use six waterways as the main spines for the park system. These waterways were flanked with boulevards that connected all the city\u2019s parks.\r\n\r\nThe drought during the summer of 2011 was particularly hard on the grass lawns of the parks, which rely on well water for irrigation. However, lawn grasses are capable of surviving without rain or irrigation for up to eight weeks. When the grass does not receive enough water, it turns brown, which is a survival mechanism called dormancy. Dormant grass usually recovers in a week or two after significant rainfall. Younger lawns that still don\u2019t have an extensive root system or lawns that see high traffic, like in golf courses, do still need to be watered regularly to survive."},"931":{"lat":"39.80701036700","lon":"-86.19613981460","title":"Storm sewer","content":"

Storm sewer<\/h3>When rain falls on hard surfaces like roads and sidewalks, it flows on the surface until it reaches a storm drain. The drain carries rainfall into the storm sewer line.\r\n\r\nDepending on where the storm drain is, the water can end up in different places. Riverside Park is located on the east bank of the White River. The area east of the park is piped into one of the city\u2019s water treatment plants, but the park area is drained directly into the river. All of the storm inlets that you see along the road have a direct connection to the river; the longest storm pipe that runs within the park is less than 950 feet long."},"926":{"lat":"39.80872048200","lon":"-86.19402254540","title":"Levee gate","content":"

Levee gate<\/h3>The levee system along the White River was built to protect the city from recurring floods.\r\n\r\nIn the late nineteenth century, residents of the area were filling in low-lying and swampy areas in the floodplain of the White River, which influenced the river\u2019s flow and caused it to be irregular and unpredictable. As the city expanded in the early twentieth century, inhabitants continued to modify the landscape, filling wetlands and redirecting and channelizing waterways.\r\n\r\nIn March of 1913, the city experienced a devastating flood as a result of very heavy rains combined with the modifications made to the physical environment in the city and upstream. After the 1913 flood, one million dollars were invested in building a levee that would control the river. These levee gates are used to relieve flooding pressures in controlled methods when heavy floods occur. The Army Corps of Engineers is currently working on updating the levee system in the northern areas that are affected by White River floods."},"924":{"lat":"39.81766046200","lon":"-86.20100362560","title":"Dam on Crooked Creek","content":"

Dam on Crooked Creek<\/h3>The Marian University EcoLab is on the estate of James Allison, which was built in the early 1900s. Although best known for founding Allison Engineering, Allison Transmission, Prest-O-Lite, and the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, Allison was an engineer entrepreneur that made a fortune by manufacturing headlamps that were less likely to explode than their predecessors. This interest in engineering can be seen in how he manipulated the flow of Crooked Creek. Concrete lines a significant portion of its banks. It is also dammed in three places within a half-mile stretch. Built primarily for aesthetics, the grounds crew would manipulate the flow of water to maintain a pleasing flow over the cobblestone rock of the dam. Today, the water-control structure is inoperable and most of the water flows around the dam.\r\n\r\nOver the past 200 years rivers all over Indiana, including the White River, have been manipulated. Recently, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in returning rivers to their natural flow. By doing so, we can decrease flooding and pollution in our waterways."},"922":{"lat":"39.81771473770","lon":"-86.20172620090","title":"Crooked Creek","content":"

Crooked Creek<\/h3>Here on Crooked Creek, we are only about one mile from the White River. If you look around, you\u2019ll see that you are in a low floodplain with a bluff to the south and another across Cold Spring Road to the north. This plain was carved by the meandering and flooding of Crooked Creek over the years. From looking at a map of soil in the area, it is apparent that this portion of Crooked Creek recently moved. It may have run straight south from what is now the Cold Spring School property until it hit the bluff.\r\n\r\nVegetation along the creek acts as a buffer to slow and clean the flow of water into the creek. During 2005, thousands of native plants were added to this side of Crooked Creek, using the plan developed by Jens Jensen in 1911 as a guide. Do the rivers and streams where you live have a vegetation buffer?"},"920":{"lat":"39.81853446460","lon":"-86.20274773740","title":"Sewer Tower","content":"

Sewer Tower<\/h3>Many of the sewer pipes in Indianapolis contain a combination of both raw sewage from houses and stormwater from streets and parking lots. All of that combined sewer water then flows to water treatment plants to be treated and returned to a river. Unfortunately, as the population in Indianapolis and other cities along the White River has grown, the ability of the combined sewer system to handle all the sewage and stormwater has diminished. Currently, if the system gets more than one-quarter of an inch of rain or snowmelt, it becomes overwhelmed and raw sewage is released into Eagle Creek, Fall Creek, Pogue\u2019s Run, and the White River.\r\n\r\nThe sewer tower that you see in front of you is the former location of an undesignated sewer overflow.\u00a0 Prior to the tower being erected, the manhole cover that was here would blow off and release sewage into Crooked Creek whenever there was a significant rain. To stop this, the manhole cover was raised by about eight feet to become the sewer tower. This Band-Aid worked, but did nothing to fix the underlying issue of too much sewage and not enough pipe. Indianapolis and many other towns in Indiana still release sewage into the river when it rains.\r\n\r\nhttp:\/\/www.indy.gov\/eGov\/City\/DPW\/SustainIndy\/WaterLand\/Pages\/CombinedSewerOverflowFAQ.aspx<\/a>\r\n\r\nhttp:\/\/cfpub.epa.gov\/npdes\/home.cfm?program_id=5<\/a>"},"917":{"lat":"39.81936197490","lon":"-86.20543604840","title":"Willow Wetland","content":"

Willow Wetland<\/h3>Young willows are a common food source for beavers. They\u2019ll cut the willow down, chop it into three-foot segments, and eat the outer bark and nutrient-rich cambium layer like they are eating corn on the cob.\r\n\r\nAfter harvesting in one area, beavers may not return to it for another year or two, allowing the trees to grow back. If you look at the bottoms of the trees by the trail here, you\u2019ll see that they are growing out of old cut stumps. Each of these trees has been cut by beavers many times over the years.\r\n\r\nBeavers can cut these small trees in less than a minute, whereas a six-inch-diameter tree will take a beaver about twenty minutes. Beavers sometimes go after even larger trees, but will generally just chew the bark off all the way around the outside of the tree, girdling it. Killing the large trees in this way allows light into the wetland and promotes growth of the young trees that beavers eat.\r\n\r\nhttp:\/\/www.in.gov\/dnr\/fishwild\/5691.htm"},"912":{"lat":"39.81814956130","lon":"-86.20532625510","title":"Weather Station","content":"

Weather Station<\/h3>Three weather stations can be found in the Marian University EcoLab and are located in a prairie, a forested wetland, and just west of the Nina Mason Pulliam Charitable Trust Outdoor Classroom. Often the wetland is cooler and more humid than the prairie, which tends to be hot, dry, and windy. The weather station in the forest near the classroom tends to be less windy and with much less solar radiation.\u00a0 These slight differences in microclimate have a major effect on what grows in those areas, which in turn has an effect on the microclimate."},"903":{"lat":"39.81710839270","lon":"-86.20433411250","title":"Beaver lodge","content":"

Beaver lodge<\/h3>A beaver lodge provides the animal protection from predators and the elements. Because the entrance is below the level of the water, predators cannot enter without dismantling the lodge, and this is a very difficult feat. The living space is above the water and provides a dry habitation. Lodge size and internal make-up differs from family to family, but they can be up to six feet tall and 30 feet in diameter. Ultimately the size will depend on the carrying capacity of the habitat. If the territory is expansive and food-rich, a larger colony can be supported. When the resources within the territory start to be overexploited, the parents will become aggressive with their oldest offspring and force them to leave.\r\n\r\nAlthough some beavers build into stream banks, this lodge is constructed of sticks and mud. In the fall, the beaver will add more layers to act as insulation in preparation for the cold weather, as well as a cache of sticks outside of the lodge. These will be eaten during the harsh parts of the winter when the pond is frozen over. The best time to see beavers here is at dawn and dusk. Watch for them patrolling the pond and listen for the warning slap of their tails on the water.\r\n\r\nhttp:\/\/www.beaversolutions.com\/about_beaver_biology.asp<\/a>\r\n\r\nhttp:\/\/www.dnr.sc.gov\/wildlife\/beaver\/beaverbiol.html<\/a>"},"898":{"lat":"39.81689152810","lon":"-86.20542292710","title":"Bubbling Spring","content":"

Bubbling Spring<\/h3>Just a few feet into the pond, north from this marker, you can see a spot where the water bubbles up.\u00a0 This is spring water that is being forced out of the ground with enough velocity that it disrupts the surface.\u00a0 Actually, most of the water that enters this pond is from springs.\u00a0 Because of this, the Marian University EcoLab\u2019s pond is quite different from others in the state.\u00a0 Shallow ponds in Indiana tend to be quite warm in the summer.\u00a0 Warm water holds less oxygen, making it difficult for some species of fish, like bass, to live.\u00a0 Because the EcoLab pond is spring-fed, the water stays cool year round, much to the liking of the large bass population.\r\n\r\nLook into the water of this EcoLab pond. Usually if there isn\u2019t vegetation in the way, the bottom can be seen rather clearly. This is because the groundwater entering the pond is low in nutrients, which creates a healthy and diverse pond ecosystem.\u00a0 How many types of plants or animals can you find?"},"890":{"lat":"39.83035969200","lon":"-86.18494117210","title":"Canal As Container","content":"

Canal As Container<\/h3>The Indianapolis Central Canal is a man-made structure responsible for supplying water to 60% of the Indianapolis water service area.\u00a0<\/ins><\/ins>It is seven miles long and carries up to 120 million gallons of water daily to the large treatment facility that serves downtown Indy and surrounding areas.\u00a0 It is critical for fire protection and the health and welfare of 600,000 central Indiana residents.\r\n\r\nThe canal\u2019s infrastructure is aging and suffering from considerable erosion as well as damage caused by muskrats burrowing in the canal slope. The erosion threatens the integrity of the canal walls and decreases the carrying capacity of the canal. Stabilization projects and structural maintenance are being performed by the water company following Army Corps of Engineers standards. The canal embankments are supported by sheets of a geotextile material, which are then covered with stones, riprap, and native herbaceous plants.\r\n\r\n "},"888":{"lat":"39.82754961660","lon":"-86.18699692070","title":"Flood Plain","content":"

Flood Plain<\/h3>The red pins that you see along this path mark the edge of what used to be the White River flood plain, which was formed by sediments suspended in the water and deposited when the flood waters receded. Today this flood plain is no longer active, but the terraced surface you are standing on is a result of the sediment deposition that happened here between 10,000 and 28,000 years ago. These surfaces are in places over ten feet above the modern flood plain."},"847":{"lat":"39.82519821160","lon":"-86.18513063460","title":"Hydrant","content":"

Hydrant<\/h3>A hydrant is an aboveground connection to an underground network of water pipes. All of the hydrants around the museum are connected to water lines that receive their water from the museum\u2019s main connection to the city\u2019s water network, close to the entrance at 42nd<\/sup> Street.\r\n\r\nIn order to provide water at a pressure sufficient for firefighting, hydrants are sized to provide a minimum flow rate of about 250 gallons per minute, although most hydrants can provide much more.\r\n\r\nThere are two types of pressurized fire hydrants: wet-barrel hydrants, where the upper section, or barrel, of the hydrant is always filled with water; and dry-barrel hydrants, where the upper section remains dry until the main valve is opened. Dry-barrel hydrants like this one are used in places where temperatures drop below 32\u00b0F to prevent the hydrant from freezing."},"845":{"lat":"39.82505880000","lon":"-86.18489570100","title":"Water Line and Storm Sewer","content":"

Water Line and Storm Sewer<\/h3>It takes quite a lot of infrastructure to sustain a city like Indianapolis, and most of it is found underground.\r\n\r\nThe red painted circle you see in the middle of the road marks a water line\u2014an underground pipe that transports clean, potable water into the museum campus. The red pin that you see by the curb marks a storm drain, which is the roadside opening through which stormwater flows into a different underground pipe system.\r\n\r\nMarion County\u2019s drainage system includes more than 22,000 storm drains, which collect storm water that flows off of sidewalks, roads, and other hard surfaces. Some of this water is released into open areas like the 100 Acres Park, but most of it is diverted into the combined sewage system, where it is mixed with sewage and transported to water treatment facilities."},"841":{"lat":"39.82552504000","lon":"-86.18447439560","title":"Green Roof","content":"

Green Roof<\/h3>Installed on top of the museum\u2019s underground parking garage, the green roof at the IMA provides many environmental and financial advantages.\u00a0 In addition to its aesthetic value, the roof improves both building and noise insulation, allows for storm water attenuation and filtration, provides a habitat for small wildlife, and improves the surrounding air quality.\r\n\r\nThis green roof occupies around 1.3 acres, making it one of the largest in the state.\u00a0 \u00a0Its construction allowed the museum to accommodate additional parking spots without sacrificing garden area. On top of the parking garage\u2019s concrete roof, there are several insulation and drainage layers that prevent water from penetrating into the building. A soil mixture is on the top layer, in which shrubs, flowerbeds and 56 red maple trees grow. IMA staff have observed a significant insulating effect on the garage below and report that very little storm water runoff is discharged from the roof.\r\n\r\nOther green roofs use a self-contained modular system installed directly on the roof structure, and can be as shallow as 6 inches or even less.\r\nGreen roofs can be designed to store a specific volume of water and must be free-draining after their capacity is reached. The soil mixture must be relatively lightweight and porous, and free from silt or clay-sized particles that could clog the drainage system.\r\n\r\nPublic and private interest in green roof technology is increasing in Indiana. A variety of green roofs have been built across the state, including small residential roofs and large systems on public and commercial buildings. Indiana\u2019s initial green roof projects have raised regional awareness about the technology, and are helping to shape local markets for green roof products.\r\n\r\nTo read more about what the IMA is doing to reduce energy consumption and green its facilities, please visit http:\/\/www.imamuseum.org\/about\/greening-ima<\/a>\r\n\r\nInformation for this segment was provided by the IMA, including a paper by Anne Altor, PhD, written for the Journal of Green Building<\/em>"},"837":{"lat":"39.82547083880","lon":"-86.18454203730","title":"Building Systems","content":"

Building Systems<\/h3>There are six different water systems that support the museum building. These systems provide drinking water, control air temperature and humidity, and protect lives and artworks.\r\n\r\nIn addition to hot and cold domestic water that arrives from the city main at the 42nd Street entrance, the museum uses city water for a closed loop heating and cooling system and for a steam network that maintains the necessary level of moisture in the air. Well water is used only for irrigation.\r\n\r\nIn order to reduce the risk of damage to artwork in the case of a false fire alarm, the museum is equipped with a dual-action sprinkler system. Like in most systems, the sprinkler head has to reach a high enough temperature for its glass cap to melt, but the system will not go into action unless there is a secondary alarm active, like a smoke detector or fire alarm.\r\n\r\nEvery month the building uses over one million gallons of water. This seems like a very big number, but in fact the museum has invested a great deal of effort in reducing water consumption in the building and grounds."},"835":{"lat":"39.82551308540","lon":"-86.18443214480","title":"Hard Surface vs. Porous Surface","content":"

Hard Surface vs. Porous Surface<\/h3>Seen through the lens of water, asphalt or concrete is considered a hard or impervious surface, while grass or other vegetation is considered a soft or pervious surface. Pervious surfaces allow the water to be absorbed into the ground, but when water hits a hard surface it flows on top of it until it makes its way into a storm sewer, a ditch, or a stream. Along the way the water collects oil residues, animal waste, and other contaminants.\r\n\r\nThis is one of the most significant impacts that urban development has had on the movement of water through our environment. Instead of infiltrating into the ground and replenishing the underground aquifers, storm water that falls on hard surfaces like streets and buildings makes its way into water treatment plants that clean the water before it is released into the river.\u00a0 These are the same treatment plants that filter and treat raw sewage, but often when there are large storm events the plants simply do not have the necessary capacity, and storm water mixed with sewage is released into the river without being treated.\r\n\r\nBy increasing soft and pervious surfaces we can reduce the amount of stormwater that ends up in the sewer. This can be done by planting rain gardens and using pervious materials like permeable paving for driveways, streets, and sidewalks.\r\n\r\nTo learn more about what you can do to reduce storm water runoff, visit: http:\/\/www.cleanwaterways.org\/<\/a>"},"830":{"lat":"39.82534363770","lon":"-86.18464568170","title":"How does water leave the museum grounds?","content":"

How does water leave the museum grounds?<\/h3>Water leaves the museum grounds in one of 3 ways. Water that is used in the kitchens or bathrooms enters the sanitary sewer system, where it is piped to a treatment plant for processing. Water that falls as precipitation either soaks into the ground, or flows over pavement into the storm drain.\r\n\r\nThe water that seeps into the ground can remain in the top layer of soil to be extracted by plant roots, or it can infiltrate deeper, moving through different layers of soil and rock until it makes its way into a stream or river, or stays stored in the ground.\r\n\r\nWater that enters the storm drains flows into the Indiana Central Canal; the canal carries the storm water to the White River State Park, where it finally drains into the White River."},"828":{"lat":"39.82530624350","lon":"-86.18463419380","title":"How does water get into the museum grounds?","content":"

How does water get into the museum grounds?<\/h3>Water arrives onto the museum grounds in one of three ways: falling from the sky in the form of precipitation, pumped from wells that tap directly into groundwater, or delivered by the city\u2019s elaborate pipe system.\r\n\r\nMost of Indianapolis\u2019s water supply comes from the White River; Fall Creek is another surface water supply. The Morse and Geist reservoirs store water to ensure a dependable supply. A number of wells are also used intermittently to supplement the supply from the river and creek. In 2010 the Indianapolis water system produced over 50 billion gallons of water for private, commercial, and industrial use.\r\n\r\nSurface water coming from rivers, creeks, streams, and reservoirs may contain more pollutants and contaminants than ground water, whereas well water tends to have more mineral deposits. \u00a0Both surface water and well water are treated in the city\u2019s water treatment plants before being delivered here through the water mains. Well water pumped directly from groundwater without being treated in the city\u2019s plants is used on the museum grounds only for irrigation."},"826":{"lat":"39.82755439300","lon":"-86.18715141610","title":"Storm Sewer Outfall","content":"

Storm Sewer Outfall<\/h3>This outfall is the end of a storm sewer that begins on the other side of the canal, behind the museum near the loading dock. \u00a0It drains water from the museum\u2019s roof and collects it along the path on the other side of the canal.\u00a0 The metal grates you see on the sides of the walkway are these drains. The water flows into a pipe that goes underground below the canal and releases the water right here into the wetland.\r\n\r\nThe dense vegetation helps slow the water down to prevent flooding and overwhelming of the storm system, while also filtering it to help clean pollutants picked up along the way. The water that is not absorbed by the vegetation then percolates slowly into the soil, eventually reaching the ground water reservoirs far below your feet.\r\n\r\nTo see where rain water flows from <\/em>your home or other parts of the city, use the Raindrop mobile app at trackaraindrop.org or access the app on the FLOW project website."},"824":{"lat":"39.82748882380","lon":"-86.18708766830","title":"Sanitary sewer line","content":"

Sanitary sewer line<\/h3>PLEASE NOTE: This site will be temporarily unavailable due to construction. \r\n\r\nA few feet below the ground runs the city\u2019s Sanitary Sewer Lines. This system collects and transports sewage from domestic uses, such as kitchens and bathrooms to water treatment facilities where they are processed.\r\n\r\nThe system in Indianapolis is aging and in need of many repairs. It surrounds the pre-1970 city limits and extends to most of the county borders, covering 222 square miles and includes 2100 miles of sewer pipes.\r\n\r\nThe first underground sewer system in Indianapolis was installed in 1870, delivering raw sewage directly into the White River. Property owners downstream from Indianapolis filed a lawsuit claiming that the water in the river had become so polluted they could no longer use it to water their crops. The city finally opened its first wastewater treatment plant in 1925."},"821":{"lat":"39.82652314790","lon":"-86.19198927000","title":"Fish Hatchery","content":"

Fish Hatchery<\/h3>The yearly process of floods that forms and reshapes the river channel by erosion is most significant for creating and maintaining fish habitats. High flows sweep away sand and small gravel from the streambed, leaving behind the large gravel and boulders that are too heavy for the current to move. These stay in place and protect the undisturbed material below them from the current. As the flood recedes, they are again covered by finer materials, but the layers underneath remain protected from the next flood.\r\n\r\nThis process supports the development of the sequence of shallow riffles or little rapids and pools like the one you see in front of you. The pools develop overhanging banks that provide excellent cover for fish to lay eggs, hatch, and develop."},"818":{"lat":"39.82675724460","lon":"-86.19202841060","title":"Old sandbar","content":"

Old sandbar<\/h3>The movements of water and sediments in a river channel are called fluvial processes. The transportation of sediments is a very important function of the river flow. These materials can be dissolved in the water, suspended in it, or stay along the bottom of the channel as bed load, moving only when the stream flow is strong and fast enough.\r\n\r\nIn parts of the river where the current is slower\u2014usually around the inner bank of a bend in the river\u2014the water tends to deposit more sediment, creating sand bars like this one. In the parts where current velocity is faster, there is more erosion and less deposition in the channel. This is a continuous process that keeps shaping the river channel, creating and increasing river meanders.\r\n\r\nTo learn more about fluvial processes, visit: http:\/\/www.imamuseum.org\/100acres\/research\/geology\/rivers<\/a>"},"816":{"lat":"39.82817983820","lon":"-86.19332525390","title":"River Meander","content":"

River Meander<\/h3>If you look at a map of the White River, you\u2019ll see that it has a meandering channel. Downstream from where you stand now, you can see the start of a meander bend where the river turns south, or to the left.\u00a0\u00a0The Art & Nature Park lies entirely within a meander loop.\r\n\r\nThere are a few physical characteristics that most meander bends have in common. Typically, the outside of the meander bend is where the water in the river will probably be deeper, and the flow speed will be higher.\u00a0In this case, it is the right-hand side of the channel. You can find similar conditions in other parts of the White River, as these characteristics are repeated from bend to bend as you travel up or down the river.\u00a0\u00a0For example, well-developed meanders can be seen upstream near Broad Ripple.\r\n\r\nhttp:\/\/www.imamuseum.org\/100acres\/research\/geology\/rivers<\/a>"},"813":{"lat":"39.82866214810","lon":"-86.19336435840","title":"Channel","content":"

Channel<\/h3>This small channel connects the lake in the IMA\u2019s Art and Nature Park to the White River, which influences the direction of the channel\u2019s water flow. When there is significant rainfall or a period of substantial snowmelt, the stage of the White River rises as a direct result of increased surface water within the river and its tributaries. As the stage increases, water flows from the higher elevation of the White River to the lower elevation of the lake\u2019s surface. During these times, some of the water exits the White River channel and is temporarily stored within the lake. Later, after the rainfall or snowmelt has ceased, the stage of the White River will begin to drop and the water flow direction in this small channel will reverse. During these conditions, water in the lake comes out of storage and is added back to the channel.\r\n\r\nThere are two additional factors that influence water-flow direction within this channel; however, at most times their influence will be minor compared to the influence imparted by the stage of White River. They are: groundwater contributions to the lake and wind speed and direction. Because of its relative low position on the landscape, during most times of the year the nature park lake receives groundwater contributions generally derived from the more elevated landscape features to the east. Therefore, if the stage of White River is steady for an extended period, an observer may recognize slow but steady flow out of the lake; flow driven by groundwater inputs. Likewise, during periods when the stage of White River is steady, the influence of wind blowing across the lake surface may be seen; strong winds from the north and\/or east may cause water to exit the lake via this small channel, while strong winds from the west and\/or south may cause water to enter the lake via this channel."},"810":{"lat":"39.82763398230","lon":"-86.19123714590","title":"Flood level markers","content":"

Flood level markers<\/h3>Look around you at the red bands marking the tree trunks. These trees are banded to create a three-dimensional map of the potential presence of water during a flood event. Try to imagine this entire landscape filled with water up to the red bands. Will your head be above or below the water level?\r\n\r\nThe bands mark the level of a flood that scientists believe has a 1% chance of happening on any given year. It is sometimes referred to as a one-hundred-year flood, but this does not necessarily mean that it only happens once every hundred years.\r\n\r\nIn March of 1913, after four days of consecutive rain, the ground could absorb no more water. The White River overflowed, breaching levees, collapsing bridges, and destroying 10,000 homes.\u00a0 The water reached a level of 711 feet, or four feet higher than the red bands around the trees.\u00a0 The 1913 flood is considered slightly larger than a five-hundred-year flood, meaning it has a 0.2% chance of happening in any given year."},"808":{"lat":"39.82769549940","lon":"-86.18869910110","title":"Area of sedimentation","content":"

Area of sedimentation<\/h3>The dynamic relationship between the river and the land is shaped by the movement of water and sediments in the river channel.\r\n\r\nWater flowing in a river channel can carry different types of sediment. The bedload slides, rolls, and bounces along the bottom of the stream. The suspended load consists of other particles that are transported entirely within the water column without touching the bottom. The rest of the particles are dissolved in the water, and are called the dissolved load.\r\n\r\nFor the most part, these materials are a product of the river\u2019s erosion of the bottom and the sides of its channel. When the river flows into a lake, the water suddenly slows down and loses its ability to carry all the bedload and most of the suspended load. This sediment gets deposited at the mouth of the river and forms a delta."},"805":{"lat":"39.82786377630","lon":"-86.18872989240","title":"History of the park","content":"

History of the park<\/h3>The land that became the 100 Acres Art & Nature Park had been used for agriculture as early as 1900. It remained in cultivation or pasture through the 1940s.\r\n\r\nThe Lilly House was one of the few settlements on the land in the early to mid 1900s. Clearings provided access to the fields, and a service road ran along the eastern edge of the canal. By 1941 the river channel had been filled in, and a new channel, twice as broad, was constructed west of the original one. Photographs from 1937 to 1956 show that the river bank at the end of 38th Street was a gathering place for people of the region. In the early 1960s the 38th Street Bridge crossing the White River was completed, eliminating this historical gathering place. River access moved northward from the canal into what is today the Art & Nature Park.\r\n\r\nThe Indianapolis Museum of Art was constructed in 1969, and by 1974 a new ramp filled up the south end of a north-south drain way. Now, when the river overflows its banks and flows south across the Park, the ramp blocks its flow and directs the water back into the new lake."},"803":{"lat":"39.8266167231","lon":"-86.18836329620","title":"Wetland in floodplain","content":"

Wetland in floodplain<\/h3>The 100 Acres Park in its entirety sits within the White River\u2019s floodplain. A floodplain is relatively flat and normally dry land alongside a stream, river, or lake that is covered by water during periodic floods.\r\n\r\nWetlands are found within many floodplains. Like this area, these are landscapes where the soil is saturated with moisture either permanently or seasonally. Wetlands can be classified by the vegetation that dominates the site, the depth of the water, and how long the site stays wet during the year. Swamps, marshes, and bogs are all types of wetlands.\r\n\r\nWetlands can naturally purify water and are sometimes used as filtration and purification mechanisms. If you walk around the Park, you\u2019ll notice storm pipes that bring water from the museum above and release it into a low-lying wetland, where the natural environment filters and absorbs the water."},"801":{"lat":"39.82887217420","lon":"-86.18843668680","title":"Soil types","content":"

Soil types<\/h3>Many people assume that all soils are more or less alike. In fact, you can find great differences in soil properties within very short distances. The type of soil has a significant influence on the type of development that the land can carry\u2013for example, some soils are not appropriate for building roads or foundations for buildings.\r\n\r\nThe Park\u2019s land has been taken from glacial soils eroded upstream and built up within the confines of the river\u2019s meander. It is better drained along the higher and sandier strands of riverbank berm adjacent to the river. Moving away from the river, drainage is poorer and slower towards the land that was once a swamp prior to construction of the canal, adjacent to the base of the bluff.\r\n\r\n "},"799":{"lat":"39.83150869380","lon":"-86.19156837010","title":"Riparian flora","content":"

Riparian flora<\/h3>The vegetation planted along a river is called riparian vegetation. Here, the IMA arborists have planted species that are native to Indiana as part of a plan to remove invasive nonnative species like honeysuckle.\r\n\r\nThe IMA arborists decided to focus their efforts on the young deciduous forests within the park, which consist of trees that lose their leaves in the winter and grow them back come springtime. This is because the young forests are where most new and foreign species of trees appear. The forest floor is harder to control, and some of the vegetation may be used by wildlife for food and shelter, so most of the work was focused on woody plantings. From 2008 to 2010 over ten thousand trees were planted, and another four thousand trees were added in the spring of 2011."},"788":{"lat":"39.8305613595","lon":"-86.18624328330","title":"Water enters floodplain","content":"

Water enters floodplain<\/h3>On most days, this levee you are standing on serves as a barrier between the White River and the lake.\u00a0 However, if the river experiences a significant flood and reaches above 15.5 feet, the water exceeds the levee at this location first and fills depressions within the wooded terrace surface immediately to the south. When the connected depressions are all filled, the overflow travels southwest and enters the lake near its northeast corner. The eroded land surface found near this corner of the lake provides physical evidence of recent occurrences."},"786":{"lat":"39.83122403250","lon":"-86.1855099147","title":"Staff gauge","content":"

Staff gauge<\/h3>Across the river at the old bridge abutment, you can see the different water levels marked on the concrete. Flooding occurs in the Park when there is heavy rainfall or extensive snow melt upstream. The markings next to the staff gauge show different flood magnitudes.\r\n\r\nThe major flood that devastated the city of Indianapolis in 1913 reached a peak water level of about 711 feet in this area. That event was somewhat greater than what scientists describe as a five-hundred-year flood. The term five-hundred-year flood means that such a flood has a 0.2% chance of happening on any given year. This does not necessarily mean that five hundred years will go by before it happens again.\r\n\r\nIn July of 2003 the White River in this area experienced a ten-year flood, and reached a level of approximately 702 feet. Insurance records show that since 1904, the White River has experienced numerous ten- or twenty-year floods, the most recent being in 1991, 2003, and 2005.\r\n\r\nThe water level in the river is constantly changing. It is usually higher in springtime and lower at the end of the summer. To see a rendering of the water level in the Park in the event of a ten-year or hundred-year flood, visit http:\/\/www.imamuseum.org\/100acres\/research\/geology\/floods<\/a>"},"782":{"lat":"39.83124953130","lon":"-86.18553335290","title":"The river","content":"

The river<\/h3>A river begins at a source and flows across the land, directed by the force of gravity, until it reaches its end, or mouth. A river can end in another river, a lake, or an ocean. The river\u2019s source is the highest point in the watercourse.\r\n\r\nThe source of the White River is a ditch that drains a farm field in rural Randolph County, Indiana. From this humble beginning, the White River becomes one of Indiana's largest rivers. It flows 273 miles to its merging with the East Fork of the White River, and then an additional 45 miles to its mouth on the Wabash River. At its mouth, the White River drains 16% of the total land surface of Indiana."},"780":{"lat":"39.83118838160","lon":"-86.18546647490","title":"USGS River Gauge","content":"

USGS River Gauge<\/h3>Working in cooperation with the Indianapolis Museum of Art, the U.S. Geological Survey has established a gauging station at this location to continuously monitor stream flow in the White River. This station is part of a vast network that monitors stream flow across the United States. While this station is relatively new, the originals date back to the late 1800s. With the datasets that these long-term stations can provide, climate-change scientists are able to document larger trends in regional precipitation and stream flow. On a more routine basis, the data collected is used to help in situations where human activities and rivers come together, such as flood forecasting, dam and reservoir operations, and evaluation of levee safety.\r\n\r\nThe operation of a USGS streamflow gauging station involves many steps and a significant investment of labor and equipment resources. The first step involves the initial construction of the gage and the installation of instruments that can continually record the elevation (or stage) of the water surface of the river. Then, every 8 weeks a USGS hydrographer visits the site, documents the water-surface elevation, and measures the volume of water (or discharge) flowing past the gage in a set unit of time.\u00a0 These measurements of streamflow discharge are most commonly expressed in units of cubic feet per second (cfs). To process the collected data, a plot (called a rating curve) is prepared to establish the relation between river-stage and discharge. Once the rating curve is established, the continuous river-stage data recorded at the gauging station can be used to prepare a continuous record of streamflow discharge for the site. The measured stage data and the calculated discharge data are served in near real-time on the USGS Indiana Water Science Center website. To view recently collected data visit: http:\/\/in.water.usgs.gov<\/a> and click on the link to real-time streamflow data."},"777":{"lat":"39.83099292870","lon":"-86.18536519300","title":"Hydrologic cycle: water in the trees","content":"

Hydrologic cycle: water in the trees<\/h3>Plants take in water from the ground using their root system. Some of this water is then returned to the air by transpiration, which is when the plant releases water through small pores on the underside of its leaves.\u00a0 Many factors affect how much water gets released by the plant, including temperature, humidity, sunlight, and wind. About 10% of the moisture in the atmosphere comes from plant transpiration.\r\n\r\nIn most places, the water table is found below the depth of a tree\u2019s roots, so the tree depends on rain and snow for its water. In places where the water table is near the land surface, such as next to lakes and oceans, roots can penetrate the saturated zone below the water table and obtain water directly from the groundwater system.\r\n\r\nhttp:\/\/ga.water.usgs.gov\/edu\/watercycle.html<\/a>\r\n\r\nhttp:\/\/earthobservatory.nasa.gov\/Features\/Water\/<\/a>"},"774":{"lat":"39.83084441660","lon":"-86.18526019470","title":"Hydrologic cycle: water on the ground","content":"

Hydrologic cycle: water on the ground<\/h3>When rainwater hits the ground, about one-third of it runs off into streams and rivers and is returned to the oceans. The rest of the water evaporates, is transpired, or soaks into the ground.\r\n\r\nThe ground stores large amounts of water. The upper layer of soil is called the unsaturated zone and contains amounts of water that change over time. The layer right below it, the saturated zone, holds ground water. The top of the ground water layer is called the water table. There are many factors that influence how often this layer gets replenished and how much water is added to it, like the geology and topography of the land, how much rain falls to the ground, and how long rain events last.\r\n\r\nWhen ground water is shallow enough and the ground layer surrounding it is permeable enough to allow fast water movement, then people can drill wells into it and extract water.\r\n\r\nThe level of the water table changes over time due to natural or man-made factors. The pumping of wells can be a major influence on water levels below ground, especially around the well. If water is pumped faster than it can be replenished, the water level in the well becomes lower. Excessive pumping can lower the water table so much that the well can no longer supply water and goes dry.\r\n\r\nhttp:\/\/ga.water.usgs.gov\/edu\/watercycle.html<\/a>\r\n\r\nhttp:\/\/earthobservatory.nasa.gov\/Features\/Water\/<\/a>"},"771":{"lat":"39.83052255070","lon":"-86.18496016780","title":"Hydrologic cycle: water in the atmosphere","content":"

Hydrologic cycle: water in the atmosphere<\/h3>The hydrologic cycle describes the continuous movement of water above, on, and below the surface of the earth as water changes states between liquid, vapor, and ice. Water falls to the earth as precipitation and returns to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. Evaporation is the process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas or vapor. The oceans, seas, lakes, and rivers provide nearly 90% of the moisture in the atmosphere via evaporation. Transpiration is the release of water from plant leaves.\r\n\r\nThere is always water in the atmosphere. Clouds are the most visible manifestation of atmospheric water, but even clear air contains water in particles that are too small to be seen. Water in the air is only about one-thousandth of a percent of the earth's total water volume. If all of the water in the atmosphere rained down at once, it would only cover the ground to a depth of about one inch.\r\n\r\nThe hydrologic cycle connects the landscape of the Art & Nature Park to the larger movement of water in the earth\u2019s hydrosphere: the water in the seas, on the land, in the atmosphere, and beneath the ground.\r\n\r\nAlthough the atmosphere may not be a great storehouse of water, it is the superhighway used to move water around the globe.\r\n\r\nHeat, or energy, is necessary for evaporation to happen. Energy breaks the bonds that hold water molecules together, which is why water evaporates quickly at the boiling point but much more slowly at the freezing point. Cooler temperatures allow the vapor to\u00a0condense\u00a0into clouds; winds move the clouds around the world until the water falls as\u00a0precipitation\u00a0to replenish the earthbound parts of the water cycle.\r\n\r\nhttp:\/\/ga.water.usgs.gov\/edu\/watercycle.html<\/a>\r\n\r\nhttp:\/\/earthobservatory.nasa.gov\/Features\/Water\/<\/a>"},"682":{"lat":"39.7672258313","lon":"-86.1709415571","title":"The Watershed","content":"

The Watershed<\/h3>A watershed is a geographic concept. It describes a set of landscapes that have at least one thing in common: they all drain water into a particular river or system of rivers. In any watershed, waters from various places flow downhill to the same river in three basic ways. In some cases, water runs directly from the land into a river, as in a heavy rainstorm or when snow melts quickly at the start of spring. Water can also find its way through the various other rivers, creeks, and streams that all make up the tributaries of a main river. Finally, in areas where humans have altered the landscape, water will flow through a complex system of pipes, sewers, and treatment facilities before it eventually ends its long journey.\r\n\r\nEvery patch of land on earth is part of a watershed. Watersheds come in all shapes and sizes, and they cut across county, state, and national boundaries. In the continental United States alone there are more than 2,000 watersheds, including the watershed that flows into the White River right here in Indianapolis.\r\n\r\nWe rely on watersheds for the water we drink and the lakes, rivers, and streams that provide so many beautiful opportunities to enjoy the outdoors. Even farms and factories depend on clean water, and an estimated $450 billion worth of the American economy relies on healthy watersheds."},"680":{"lat":"39.7675439731","lon":"-86.1751458275","title":"Turtle Beach","content":"

Turtle Beach<\/h3>Looking down at the water,\u00a0 a logjam can be seen around one of the bridge\u2019s pylons. It\u2019s a favorite spot to various types of turtles, including the\u00a0 red-eared slider, a semi-aquatic turtle found in the White River. Red-eared sliders get their name from the distinctive red mark around their ears their ability to slide off rocks and logs into the water quickly. They are almost entirely aquatic, but leave the water to bask in the sun and lay eggs.\r\nRed-eared sliders are omnivores with a diet consisting of crayfish, fish, tadpoles, crickets, snails, aquatic plants and insects, etc. To survive the cold Indiana winters, they will typically swim to the bottom of the river in late fall where they remain inactive until spring.\u00a0\r\nThe collection of wild turtles as pets has caused many species to become endangered, especially when combined with habitat loss, water pollution, and predators like raccoons that eat turtle eggs. It is illegal in the State of Indiana to sell native species of turtles.\r\nTurtles and other aquatic animals need a healthy and clean environment in order to thrive. Help protect red-eared sliders by helping preserve the White River and its wetlands."},"678":{"lat":"39.7665971285","lon":"-86.1756141343","title":"The River's Edge","content":"

The River's Edge<\/h3>The White River State Park picnic shelter is a popular location\u00a0 provides a great view of the White River and a shady spot to enjoy a picnic lunch on a warm day. It\u2019s a place where the natural beauty of White River is juxtaposed with the modern, downtown Indianapolis skyline.\r\nTake a moment and look at the river in this location. Notice the two sides of the river \u2013 the one closest to the picnic shelter and the one closest to downtown. What differences do you see?\r\nOne side has been greatly impacted by man. The other has not. In fact, it has been left for vegetation to grow, including river grasses and cattails.\r\nIn which of the two areas is wildlife more prevalent? Which of the two areas is more appealing? It\u2019s something to think about as we develop communities and urban areas that border our natural waterways. Rivers and waterways not only provide habitats for diverse wildlife, but they provide a peaceful place and a beauty that man simply can\u2019t duplicate. How can we help natural waterways and our communities to co-exist?"},"676":{"lat":"39.7710390527","lon":"-86.182312422","title":"CSO Water Storage Area","content":"

CSO Water Storage Area<\/h3>There is a 3 million gallon underground storage tank constructed\u00a0 beneath this very site. Constructed by the City of Indianapolis Department of Public Works in 2005, this concrete tank captures and stores a combination of raw sewage and storm water that would otherwise flow into the river during rainfall or snowmelt. The tank holds\u00a0\u00a0 waste water until flows in the city\u2019s sewer system subsides, providing enough capacity to transport the flows to the Belmont Advanced Water Treatment Plant for treatment.\r\n\r\nThe tank is part of the city\u2019s long-term plan to reduce sewage overflows and restore Indianapolis rivers and streams. Between July and December of 2001, overflows occurred 29 times at this spot. Since the tank was installed overflows from this CSO were reduced significantly, and in the same period between July and December of 2010 only 5 overflows have occurred.\r\nThe underground tank has an automatic flushing system that cleans the tank immediately after every rain event and flushes it with clean water.\r\n\r\nTo learn more about Combined Sewer Overflows and what the city is doing to avoid them visit http:\/\/www.indy.gov\/eGov\/City\/DPW\/SustainIndy\/WaterLand\/Pages\/CombinedSewerOverflows.aspx<\/a>"},"674":{"lat":"39.7740907235","lon":"-86.1859810786","title":"Restoration Results","content":"

Restoration Results<\/h3>At the Lilly ARBOR site, 1332 trees were planted to evaluate 3 widely used reforestation techniques. After 10 years the results are striking. The containerized tree plantings\u00a0 had the highest survivability at approximately 47%. Whereas the bare root random plantings\u00a0 and bare root plantings with weed mats and rye grass were essentially the same at 38 and 39%. The trees with the highest percentage survival are Honey locust at 80% and Silver maple at 67%. The trees with the lowest survival rates are Black willow at 14% and Sycamore at 8%."},"672":{"lat":"39.7781798326","lon":"-86.1886724145","title":"Restoration Trees","content":"

Restoration Trees<\/h3>Tree species selected for planting include native species that grew in the Tipton Till Plain Natural Region of central Indiana. Extremely rare or species from special habitats were excluded. Planted tree species included hawthorn, honey locust, swamp white oak, chinquapin oak, red maple, silver maple, hackberry, American sycamore, cottonwood, green ash, and black willow."},"670":{"lat":"39.7789766317","lon":"-86.1886253034","title":"Lilly Arbor Project","content":"

Lilly Arbor Project<\/h3>The Lilly ARBOR Project was designed to test the best techniques for flood plain reforestation.\u00a0 The goals were to determine the best tree species selection for the site, as well as their size, and planting style. Success is being measured by the survival of the species, the number and type of animals and plants that have returned to the site, as well as the cost of each approach. Important to the project is its use as an outdoor laboratory for university and K-12 students and teachers. The results are being used to design other restoration projects."},"668":{"lat":"39.7827837086","lon":"-86.1861880127","title":"Birding on the River","content":"

Birding on the River<\/h3>As you have been walking along the White River downtown, have you noticed any birds? .\r\nYou are sure to see waterfowl, the large grey, black and white Canada geese. Many people assume they migrate, but in fact, many stick around all year due to the increased availability of open water and grassy areas in the winter. You might also see a bald eagle perched on a high tree beside the river, or soaring above looking for fish. As recently as 1987 there were no known nesting eagles in Indiana, however by 2010, they were recorded in 50 counties. Now cup your ears and try to locate birds by sound alone.\u00a0 If you listen hard you\u2019ll hear a melodic mix of birds chirping back and forth to one another. The sounds of the city can sometimes intrude so focus to hear both separately. It is a good reminder that humans and birds co-exist with one another.\r\nFinally, take a long look at this stretch of river and think about the quality of the habitat.\u00a0 What kind of food is available? What is the quality of the water? Is there plenty of shelter and are there places to raise young? A habitat with all of these elements can support a lot of different kinds of wildlife. If you could make one improvement to the habitat, what would that be?\r\nContinue to walk or drive along the White River\u00a0 and try to find the birds mentioned today, as well as other species that may be visiting the area. Their presence may not always be obvious, but if you pause to look and listen you may be surprised at the wildlife you\u2019ll discover."},"666":{"lat":"39.7828637435","lon":"-86.1861163381","title":"Old Pump House","content":"

Old Pump House<\/h3>In the first decades of the 20th Century, the leaders of Indianapolis hired George Edward Kessler, a nationally known American city planner and landscape architect to develop a plan that would guide economic and social growth.\u00a0 The Riverside Pumping Station, considered an outstanding example of the use of classic design to beautify functional buildings.\u00a0 The building was designed by architect Lewis K. Davis, and is believed to have been constructed in 1909.\r\nLocated in the downtown well field, the pumps are still functional today.\u00a0 They deliver treated drinking water to approximately 60 % of the metropolitan area\u2019s population. At capacity they are able to deliver 140 million gallons per day (MGD)."},"664":{"lat":"39.7860641345","lon":"-86.1880372691","title":"Deep Tunnel Project","content":"

Deep Tunnel Project<\/h3>Construction of the Deep Rock Tunnel Connector is planned to begin in September 2011, and the project will be complete and in operation by early 2017. Since the tunnel will be constructed below groundwater levels, impacts to wells in the area as well as gas lines, electrical lines, existing sewers and other utilities will be minimal.\r\nThis project will be the first phase of the city\u2019s overall tunnel storage and transport system. From the Deep Rock Tunnel Connector, additional storage tunnels will extend along the White River, Fall Creek, Pleasant Run and Pogues Run to create a collective, underground storage facility for sewage.\r\n\r\nTo read more about the Tunnel project and other initiatives by the Department of Public Works please visit:\r\nhttp:\/\/www.indy.gov\/eGov\/City\/DPW\/RebuildIndy\/Projects\/Pages\/DeepRockTunnelConnector.aspx<\/a>\r\n\r\n "},"662":{"lat":"39.8024476347","lon":"-86.1957513374","title":"Retention Pond","content":"

Retention Pond<\/h3>The detention pond here was constructed in 1978, adjacent to a former park building located where the Riverside Recreation Center built in 1993 is now located.\u00a0 Rather than holding water displaced by the construction of a building, the pond was built to hold water during floods to move it off the recreational playing fields located to the north."},"658":{"lat":"39.8037351265","lon":"-86.1976459187","title":"Channelized River Edge","content":"

Channelized River Edge<\/h3>Lake Indy\u2019s history dates to the last Ice Age, when the Wisconsin Glacier covered Indianapolis and extended south to Martinsville.\u00a0 As the glacier receded it dropped sand and gravel,\u00a0 filling up any scoured lake depressions it may have carved on its journey to southern Indiana.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 Lake Indy is a section of the White River that was formed by the Emrichsville Dam and is deep enough to allow boating and water-related recreational activities.\r\nThe glacier also leveled out large flood plains, which are now used as golf courses and playing fields at Riverside Regional Park.\u00a0 Much of the land above the river was flooded in 1913 during what is considered the most disastrous flood in Indiana history.\u00a0 The White River crested at approximately 31.5 feet above flood stage, but not before washing out earthen levees and inundating neighborhoods The loss of 25 people and 7,000 homes prompted the local, state and Federal government to design a flood protection system for the city. This system included larger levees, pumping stations, floodgates, floodwalls, reservoirs, and dredging and straightening of ditches and streams.\u00a0 By design and function, it also limited access to the White River.\r\nThe inside curve of the river near 20th Street provided the opportunity for level land along the river on the inside of the levee.\u00a0 The first Lake Indy Boat Ramp was located south of the Taggart Memorial and is still being used.\u00a0 A larger, improved boat ramp and docks were built north of the Taggart Memorial along the river, thus enabling continued access and enjoyment of this river."},"656":{"lat":"39.8090016586","lon":"-86.1941142949","title":"30th St. Bridge","content":"

30th St. Bridge<\/h3>The 30th Street Bridge has provided a primary connection to the White River for more than a century. Constructed in 1907, this closed spandrel, concrete arch bridge measures 316.8 feet in length and is the most beautiful bridge crossing the White River in Marion County, Indiana. Its look and style is associated with the Late Victorian Era and was soon superseded by the classic limestone and concrete bridges in George Kessler\u2019s plan for the ideal city here in Indianapolis.\r\nWhen constructed, the bridge provided access to Riverside, the largest park in the historic Indianapolis park system and served as the focal point to the recreation features in the Riverside Amusement Park, including bear pits, a water slide, and a roller coaster that breached the skyline. The endless stories and memories gliding by in the ripples and currents of the White River validate this bridge\u2019s contribution to Indianapolis\u2019 history."},"654":{"lat":"39.8159053716","lon":"-86.2042400819","title":"Rain Garden","content":"

Rain Garden<\/h3>Most of the rain that lands on a turf grass lawn or asphalt parking lot doesn\u2019t seep into the soil and become groundwater. Instead, rainwater tends to run off of these mostly impervious surfaces and into a river or storm sewer. This fact is especially problematic in Indianapolis because our sewage and storm sewer systems are combined. Even small rainstorms will cause an overload in those combined pipes that result in a release of sewage tainted water directly into our Indianapolis rivers, all of which eventually flow into the White River. This release of sewage into our rivers is called a \u201ccombined sewer overflow\u201d and is a primary reason why many rivers in Indiana are not within federal water quality standards.\r\nOne easy way to partially solve this issue is to use rain gardens or wetlands to capture that water before it reaches the river or storm sewer. Rain gardens are depressions that tend to retain precipitation and are planted with native plant species. These natural, water-loving plants have deep roots that help channel the rainwater down into the soil. By doing so, rain gardens can reduce the number of combined sewer overflows and act as a natural filter for rainwater. The drier parts of this rain garden includes little bluestem, side oats grama, prairie dropseed, blazing star, wild onion, and butterfly weed, while the wetter, lower areas incorporate cardinal flower, yellow fox sedge, obedient plant, palm sedge, and frank\u2019s sedge. Tree, Song, and Chipping sparrows have been seen using these plants for food and cover."},"649":{"lat":"39.8196151785","lon":"-86.2054372406","title":"Groundwater Recharge","content":"

Groundwater Recharge<\/h3>Mud puddles don\u2019t last forever. If you come back to one a week after a rain, the water is usually gone. Most of this water evaporated into the air, but some of it worked its way down into the ground to become groundwater. In a groundwater-fed wetland like here in the Marian University EcoLab, there is a constant give and take between the groundwater and surface water. In some locations within the EcoLab, such as some of the springs, this is very obvious. In other areas it is less so.\r\nThe area in front of you is one of the more obvious groundwater recharge zones. What you see is the end of a beaver dredged channel. If you were to throw an orange into this channel, it would float toward you. This is odd because the channel is dammed at both ends and there shouldn\u2019t be a flow at all. The water at the end of the channel is leaving the surface and entering the ground right in front of you."},"647":{"lat":"39.8197921282","lon":"-86.2065286345","title":"Former Beaver Pond","content":"

Former Beaver Pond<\/h3>Beavers control the landscape here in the Marian University EcoLab, and are second only to humans in their ability to manipulate their surroundings to suit their needs.\r\nWe call this area the North Beaver Pond. In 2008, it was a two- to three-feet deep pond that used to be held by a meticulously maintained dam. When the beavers leave, the dam slowly breaks down and creates a marshy wetland. We don\u2019t know why they are currently not in the area.\r\nWater enters this system as storm water runoff from housing west of the EcoLab. The marsh acts as a filter for water entering the system. Storm water moves very fast, however, once it hits the wetland, it slows down considerably. As it does, sediment carried by the storm water will fall out of suspension, and pollutants will be removed by the plants and soil organisms. If the water does not percolate back into the ground, it will make its way east towards Crooked Creek and eventually to the White River, cleaner than before it entered the wetland"},"644":{"lat":"39.8181495613","lon":"-86.2053262551","title":"Weather Station","content":"

Weather Station<\/h3>Three weather stations can be found in the Marian University EcoLab and are located in a prairie, a forested wetland, and just west of the Nina Mason Pulliam Charitable Trust Outdoor Classroom. Often the wetland is cooler and more humid than the prairie, which tends to be hot, dry, and windy. The weather station in the forest near the classroom tends to be less windy and with much less solar radiation.\u00a0 These slight differences in microclimate have a major effect on what grows in those areas, which in turn has an effect on the microclimate."},"642":{"lat":"39.817872586","lon":"-86.2051087636","title":"Beaver Channel","content":"

Beaver Channel<\/h3>Like humans, beavers are constantly reshaping their surroundings. They build dams and create ponds. They cut trees and build lodges. But here\u2019s one you\u2019ve probably never heard before: they also build canals for transportation. The channel you see here is not a river; there is no flowing water. In fact, you can see a small dam to the east of the bridge. This channel was built by beavers. Often in a beaver-dredged canal, you can see fresh mud pushed up on the sides of the channel as they continually work to maintain it. This canal is part of a system that networks out into the areas where beaver are feeding. Students at Marian University have researched feeding activity in colonies with canal systems and have found that the beavers will expand their feeding area far from the pond, using the canals to gain easier access to food.\r\nWhen it rains, these canals store water and slowly release it into the wetland or pond. Thanks to the beavers, this extra storage capacity helps reduce flooding in White River."},"640":{"lat":"39.8172634426","lon":"-86.2040259864","title":"Beaver Dam","content":"

Beaver Dam<\/h3>The term busy as a beaver is no exaggeration. They work tirelessly building and maintaining dams like this one. Beavers are very clumsy on land and have a weak upper body, so the resulting pond allows them to easily transport food and building materials. This specific dam keeps the swamp wetland to the north full of shallow water.\r\nTo build a dam, beavers first place mud and stones. Into this foundation, they add poles and brush, followed by stones, mud, and soggy vegetation as a plaster to hold it all together. Dams are often passed on from generation to generation with constant maintenance from the colony.\r\nWhen the beavers build this dam too high, it floods the Rustic Trail.\u00a0 The pile of sticks you see alongside it is result of work by the EcoLab staff to counteract this possibility."},"638":{"lat":"39.8174111017","lon":"-86.2061369135","title":"Sedge Meadow Wetland","content":"

Sedge Meadow Wetland<\/h3>Wetlands are generally classified by dominant vegetation and how long they are wet during the growing season. This area is a sedge meadow, and is dominated by lake sedge. Tussock sedge is another type that can commonly be found, forming interesting mounds, or tussocks, that create an elevated area surrounded by saturated soil. Sedge meadows will flood during wet months and often will remain inundated with water for the majority of the year. Sedges are flood tolerant and many species are also semi-drought tolerant.\r\nLike all wetlands, sedge meadows create a unique habitat for native flora and fauna providing essential ecosystem services such as flood control and water filtering. These knee-high sedges create good cover for mammals such as beaver and muskrat, and birds like Swamp Sparrow, Yellow Warbler, Common Yellowthroat, and Sora."},"636":{"lat":"39.816125052","lon":"-86.2041377537","title":"Spring in Half Moon Pool","content":"

Spring in Half Moon Pool<\/h3>Ever wondered how a road got its name? Cold Spring Road, used to access Marian University, was named for the springs found in its vicinity. For example, if you search the back end of this pool, along the base of the bluff, you\u2019ll notice water flowing out of the hillside. This is ground water that is coming to the surface, or a spring. The base of the Marian University EcoLab bluff, as well as many other areas in the EcoLab, is bursting with spring water year round.\r\n\r\nBut, why are there so many springs here? As you dig down into the ground in central Indiana you are digging through\u00a0 glacial till. This is rock dropped by Ice Age glaciers that moved across the region multiple times over the past two million years. Water can soak down into some of these layers of till, but some of the layers are impervious and water remains on the surface.\r\n\r\nTo the east is Crooked Creek and beyond that is the White River. These rivers are tiny in comparison to what they were as the glaciers melted at the end of the last Ice Age. Those post-glacial torrents eroded the bluff here in front of you. The glacial till that eroded away during this flood contains layers that differ in their permeability to water. One impermeable layer is exposed at the base of the bluff and several spots elsewhere in the EcoLab. Groundwater that percolates down into the soil gets stuck on top of that layer. Its only escape is here and other springs in the EcoLab.\r\n\r\nJens Jensen, the designer of this landscape in 1911, knew the springs were present and incorporated them into his design with half-moon frog pools like this one. As you continue your walk, try to find more springs or spring-fed frog pools in the Eco Lab."},"634":{"lat":"39.8161475762","lon":"-86.2040242647","title":"Cisterns and Pump House","content":"

Cisterns and Pump House<\/h3>These buildings are relics from the Allison estate, which was built in 1911. The two round buildings are cisterns that are sitting on springs collecting groundwater from the hillside. The square building is the pump room housing the equipment that would move the spring water up to the mansion. Although 100 years old, the cisterns still collect spring water and you should be able to hear water flowing into the building from the spring or out of the cistern into the pond.\r\nMr. Allison used this water for cooking, bathing, drinking, irrigation, and even air conditioning. Today the spring water flows into the pond and eventually to Crooked Creek and White River."},"632":{"lat":"39.8398083921","lon":"-86.1746613991","title":"Canal Wildlife","content":"

Canal Wildlife<\/h3>The Central Canal is a critical part of Indianapolis\u2019s infrastructure.\u00a0Every day, sixty percent of the city\u2019s water supply travels from the White River in Broad Ripple down this conduit to a treatment and distribution facility near 16th Street.\u00a0In addition, the Central Canal is also a critical habitat for wildlife within Indianapolis. Six species of turtles call the Central Canal home, most common of which is the map turtle. With luck and a sharp eye, you may also see muskrats\u00a0 swimming across the canal with materials for their subterranean dens.\u00a0 Though they are tougher to spot, minks can occasionally be seen, as well. Foxes, woodchucks, and deer all come to the canal for water from the surrounding forest.\u00a0 It is not unusual to see great blue herons wading in the shallow water.\u00a0Wood ducks and mallards are also common, and of course Canada geese are abundant, especially in areas more regularly visited by humans.\u00a0 Beneath the surface, there are catfish, carp, and thousands of sunfish feeding on an assortment of aquatic insects, snails, crayfish, and other invertebrates.\u00a0The canal makes life in Indianapolis possible for humans and wildlife alike."},"629":{"lat":"39.8438947979","lon":"-86.1719009204","title":"Canal as Infrastructure","content":"

Canal as Infrastructure<\/h3>The Indianapolis Central Canal is nearly 200 years old in some areas. The canal flows in an urban environment, and is a hardworking and indispensable piece of human infrastructure.\u00a0 While urban, it can also feel like a bit of welcome wilderness near the bustle of the city.\r\n\r\nDespite its age, the canal supplies Indianapolis with as much as 120 million gallons of water every day. The water, which comes directly from the White River, is cleaned and made safe to drink at the city\u2019s largest treatment plant.\u00a0 From there it flows through pipes to supply more than 600,000 residents of central Indiana.\r\n\r\nErosion is threatening the canal\u2019s stability, and is contributed to by the powerful storm water that carves into the banks. In some spots, burrowing muskrats have crumbled the walls of the canal and filled it with soil. In other places, frequent usage has worn away the walls and towpath of the canal. Human interaction with local wildlife is also adding to the problem. Near the Rainbow Bridge, people have long enjoyed feeding ducks, which now expect a snack in that spot.\r\n\r\nIndianapolis Water, the company that manages the city\u2019s water supply, is working to fix these issues and keep water flowing into town. Projects like the Central Canal Bank Stabilization are making improvements to the canal\u2019s design, though challenges persist."},"627":{"lat":"39.8289679115","lon":"-86.1844674742","title":"Rain Garden","content":"

Rain Garden<\/h3>A rain garden is a shallow depression in the ground with plantings designed to hold rainwater for a short period of time, allowing it to percolate through the soil profile and preventing soil erosion and capturing pollutants before they reach waterways.\r\nThis rain garden was planted to capture storm runoff from the parking lot. It was planted in three levels with native and non-native plants that are tolerant of wet conditions on the lowest level, such as sedges, and those that can survive drought conditions on the highest level, like coneflowers and other prairie natives. The porous soil in this location will aid in the movement of water through the soil.\r\nAs cities grow and add more asphalt and buildings, less water can be absorbed into the ground and is instead forced into storm drains. Marion County is over capacity for the amount of water it can treat. Around the country, both suburban areas and cities are now advocating the development of rain gardens as an inexpensive way to help alleviate excessive storm water runoff problems."},"623":{"lat":"39.8255116356","lon":"-86.1845271257","title":"Fountain","content":"

Fountain<\/h3>This fountain uses water provided by the city. It takes about 10,000 gallons of water to operate the fountain, which is constantly re-circulated through the pipes. An automated system controls when the fountain starts and stops using a predetermined schedule.\r\n\r\nHistorically, fountains had a function - they were connected to aqueducts or springs to provide water for drinking, cooking and bathing in cities and small towns. By the end of the 19th century when indoor plumbing became the main source of drinking water, urban fountains became purely decorative.\r\n\r\nFountains also change the environment around them by influencing the air temperature and the relative humidity.\u00a0This is why they are often used as a design tool in warm and dry climates."},"621":{"lat":"39.8277991102","lon":"-86.1929681351","title":"Overflow Point","content":"

Overflow Point<\/h3>This small channel connects the lake in the IMA\u2019s Art and Nature Park to the White River, which influences the direction of the channel\u2019s water flow. When there is significant rainfall or a period of substantial snowmelt, the stage of the White River rises as a direct result of increased surface water within the river and its tributaries. As the stage increases, water flows from the higher elevation of the White River to the lower elevation of the lake\u2019s surface. During these times, some of the water exits the White River channel and is temporarily stored within the lake. Later, after the rainfall or snowmelt has ceased, the stage of the White River will begin to drop and the water flow direction in this small channel will reverse. During these conditions, water in the lake comes out of storage and is added back to the channel."},"619":{"lat":"39.8280199964","lon":"-86.1924385015","title":"Water Storage","content":"

Water Storage<\/h3>To the northwest of this location, there is a small channel that connects this lake to the White River. When significant precipitation falls upstream, the stage of the river increases and water flows from the river into the lake where it is held in temporary storage. Later, when the stage of the White River begins to drop, the flow direction in the small channel will reverse, and water held in temporary storage is added back to the White River channel.\r\n\r\nThis process of moving water in and out of temporary storage has significant consequence for downstream flooding. If you consider any given flood event, there is a finite volume of water, derived from precipitation, that will eventually pass through the watershed. The timing of that passage is critical in determining the height of the flood peak. If the entire volume passes relatively quickly, the flood will be of short duration, but the elevation of the flood peak may reach catastrophic heights. On the other hand, if the flood water can pass through the channel over an extended period of time, the elevation of the downstream flood peak will be reduced. The temporary storage of flood waters, either through natural or man-made opportunities, significantly impacts the duration and peak height of floods.\r\n\r\nThis concept of holding water in temporary storage is seen every year in the network of flood-control reservoirs established to reduce flooding along the lower Mississippi River. Through direct manipulation, flood-control reservoirs are able to store or release water over a timeframe that minimizes flood impacts to the downstream communities they are designed to protect."},"617":{"lat":"39.8309366413","lon":"-86.1902356621","title":"Flooded Path","content":"

Flooded Path<\/h3>Most of the time, the pathway along the top of this levee is well above the water flowing within the White River. However, as is true for all natural stream channels, the level fluctuates in direct response to the volume of precipitation that falls within the contributing watershed. When the White River watershed, which is upstream from this location, receives significant precipitation, the elevation of the water surface within the channel will rise.\r\nTo be able to easily and consistently describe the elevation of the water surface at this location, an arbitrary reference elevation has been established. The water level can be described as feet above or below this point. On a typical summer day, the White River commonly flows at a local stage of 2 to 5 feet. With long-term datasets collected here and other stations along the White River, it has been documented that portions of this path will begin to be covered by flood water when the water level reaches 15.5 ft."},"615":{"lat":"39.8306305326","lon":"-86.1884681111","title":"'Armored' edge of river","content":"

'Armored' edge of river<\/h3>Channel meandering is a process accomplished by the simultaneous deposition of sediment on the inside and removal of sediment on the outside of a river bend. While this is a natural process, there are cases where it is decided that stream bank erosion or natural channel relocation will lead to an unacceptable consequence. The traditional approach in these cases has been to harden or armor the channel bank with some material or structure that the channel is not competent to erode. In this location, baskets made of wire were placed in a configuration designed to prevent further bank erosion. If erosion were to continue and breach the levee here, it is conceivable that the White River may abandon the bend to the northwest of this location and follow a shorter and steeper flow path, through the lake and exiting e along the southwest shoreline."},"613":{"lat":"39.8305636121","lon":"-86.1881665128","title":"Water Storage in Riverbank","content":"

Water Storage in Riverbank<\/h3>This river flows within a channel composed of unconsolidated sediments and has the ability to rework its boundaries. In nearly all cases, these unconsolidated deposits have the ability to store water during wet periods and to yield water when river levels begin to fall. This cycle of water moving into and out of a stream bank is known as bank storage. When substantial precipitation falls within the White River watershed and the river rises in response, water flowing within the channel seeps into the banks and is temporarily held in the sediments adjacent to the river. During drier periods when the river stage drops, the water held in bank storage drains back into the river channel. If an area experiences a long period without substantial precipitation, it is water derived from the river banks and bed that sustain its base flow. However, during sustained periods of drought, even sources of base flow can be depleted and the channel may become dry."},"611":{"lat":"39.8303081645","lon":"-86.1882885598","title":"USGS River gauge","content":"

USGS River gauge<\/h3>Working in cooperation with the Indianapolis Museum of Art, the U.S. Geological Survey has established and maintains this lake-stage gauging station. This station is designed to continuously monitor the elevation of the water surface of the lake. At this site, the required data is collected using pressure-sensor technology. Housed in the instrument shelter, a pressurized tank feeds nitrogen gas through an orifice line that extends to the lake bed. As the lake level fluctuates, a pressure sensor detects how much pressure is required to force a nitrogen bubble from the end of the line, with less pressure required when the lake level is low and more pressure required when the lake level is high. If you stand by the lake shore near the yellow marker, you may be able to see the nitrogen bubbles rising to the water\u2019s surface. The pressure data is and transmitted via satellite to U.S. Geological Survey computers. There, the raw data is subjected to quality-assurance routines and made ready for distribution. To view the lake-stage data collected at this site please visit: in.water.usgs.gov.<\/a>"},"609":{"lat":"39.8300384873","lon":"-86.1856049402","title":"Groundwater Observation Well","content":"

Groundwater Observation Well<\/h3>Through the process of infiltration, water can seep into the soil and percolate downward. In most regions with humid climates, open spaces within shallow soils contain both downward percolating water and air and is called the unsaturated zone.\u00a0 Below this layer is the saturated zone, where the spaces within the soil or rock unit are filled with water. The water separates the unsaturated zone from the saturated zone and tends to fluctuate up and down through the wet and dry seasons of the year. In many regions of the world, including the Midwestern United States, a significant portion of water-supply need is satisfied by groundwater resources."},"607":{"lat":"39.8312982213","lon":"-86.1855237565","title":"Velocity Meter","content":"

Velocity Meter<\/h3>This stream gauge is equipped with a device referred to as an acoustic Doppler velocity meter, or \u201cADVM.\u201d The ADVM is a small submerged instrument that sends sound waves through the water, striking small objects, such as sediment, plankton, and air bubbles. Some of the sound is reflected back the ADVM, which compares the difference between the frequencies of the reflected and transmitted sounds. With this, the ADVM computes the speed and direction \u2013 or velocity \u2013 of the objects in the water and thus the speed and direction of the water itself. Scientists can then more accurately calculate the volume of water \u2013 or stream flow \u2013 moving by this stream gauge. This is critical for many purposes in water resources, such as flood forecasting, designing bridges, and calculating how much water is available for drinking, irrigation, industrial use, and healthy aquatic ecosystems."},"603":{"lat":"39.830359692","lon":"-86.1849411721","title":"Water Quality","content":"

Water Quality<\/h3>This canal carries water to the largest treatment plant in Indianapolis, where the water is treated until it is fit for drinking. The water in the canal comes from the White River, which is in turn fed by other rivers, lakes, streams and reservoirs. As water travels over the surface of the land or through the ground, it dissolves naturally occurring minerals and can pick up substances produced by the presence of animals or human activity. The water contains contaminants from many different sources. For example, microbial contaminants like viruses and bacteria may come from septic systems, agricultural livestock operations, wildlife, and sewage treatment plants. Pesticides and herbicides can also be found in the water. These can come from a variety of sources such as agriculture, urban storm water runoff and even residential uses like the pesticides used for a private lawn.\r\n\r\nTo ensure that tap water is safe to drink, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency prescribes regulations that limit the amount of certain contaminants in water provided by public water systems. Food and Drug Administration regulations establish limits for contaminants in bottled water, which must provide the same protection for public health.\r\n\r\nOrganic chemical contaminants, including synthetic and volatile organic chemicals that are byproducts of industrial processes and petroleum production, can also come from gas stations, urban storm water runoff, and septic systems.\r\n\r\nInorganic contaminants like salts and metals can be naturally occurring, but they can also result from urban storm water runoff, industrial or domestic waste water discharge, oil and gas production, mining or farming. Radioactive contaminants can also be naturally occurring, or are the result of oil and gas production or mining activities.\r\n\r\nOne thing you could do to help improve the water quality of Indianapolis is to use phosphorous-free fertilizer on your lawn. Most Indiana lawns have sufficient phosphorous and therefore any excess runs off into lakes and streams.\r\n\r\nClick here<\/a> for other suggestions.\r\n\r\nClick here<\/a> to learn more about the Indianapolis water and the water quality in Indy visit:\r\n<\/a>"},"601":{"lat":"39.8306209917","lon":"-86.1849272838","title":"Weather Station","content":"

Weather Station<\/h3>This device is a meteorological observation station, also called a weather station. It was installed here by the United States Geological Survey in order to measure, record and transmit the weather conditions using six different components: barometric pressure, air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed, and wind direction.\r\n\r\nAll of this information is being measured by sensors, located in the small box at the top of the station\u2019s mast. Every 15 minutes the sensors take a new measurement and transmit it in the form of electronic signals to a data logger. Once every hour, the logged data is transmitted over satellite to the USGS computers where it is reviewed and prepared to go online.\r\n\r\nView the data on the USGS Indiana website<\/a> and follow the link to real-time data in the left hand menu. You can also browse through the over 200 additional\u00a0USGS sites around Indiana."}},"2":{"896":{"lat":"39.81687647770","lon":"-86.20545148850","title":"Storm Sewer Overflow","content":"

Storm Sewer Overflow<\/h3>PLEASE NOTE: This site will be temporarily unavailable due to construction. \r\n\r\nThis storm sewer drains stormwater from a large portion of Marian University\u2019s upper campus. Piping stormwater to the north beaver pond prevents flooding by slowing the water down so that it doesn\u2019t reach the river all at once during a storm. As a wetland itself, the pond will also filter and clean the stormwater as it flows through the system. For example, because the stormwater runs off of a field of grass, it will likely carry nitrogen fertilizer. This pollutant can be removed by plants and algae in the pond. Flood control and filtering are two of the functions that make wetlands an especially important habitat type.\r\n\r\nThis water exits the wetland at its east boundary, flows into Crooked Creek, and then proceeds east before eventually discharging into the White River at I-65."},"893":{"lat":"39.81690838520","lon":"-86.20546415440","title":"Fen","content":"

Fen<\/h3>Wetlands come in many forms and can be classified by the vegetation that dominates the site, the depth of the water, and how long the site stays wet during the year. Fens are a type of wetland where the ground is constantly saturated, but the water level is generally low. As vegetation and other organisms die, they break down slowly because the constant saturation results in low oxygen levels in the soil. This combination of characteristics leads to the formation of peat, or partially decayed vegetation.\r\n\r\nThis fen is fed by groundwater flowing out of the base of the bluff. It also sits on an old road bed that was part of the original James Allison estate built in 1911. If you look to the far eastern end, there is a Jensen-designed frog pool that is buried in silt. The old metal pipe that drains it can be seen on the north side of the trail.\u00a0 Human history and natural history go hand-in-hand in the Marian University EcoLab.\r\n\r\nThese characteristics also promote the growth of certain species of plants, such as skunk cabbage. Skunk cabbage flowers in January and February, and because the flower itself generates heat, it can actually break through the snow. The big green leaves can be seen during spring and summer. The leaves can also be smelled when crushed, and yes, they smell like skunk.\r\n\r\n "},"869":{"lat":"39.84446545370","lon":"-86.17162059820","title":"Butler University","content":"

Butler University<\/h3>Founded in 1855 by attorney and abolitionist Ovid Butler, Butler occupies 290 acres in Indianapolis' Butler-Tarkington neighborhood. The University emphasizes a liberal arts-based education with the goal of teaching clear and effective communication, appreciation of beauty, and a commitment to lifelong learning, community service and global awareness.\r\n\r\nButler offers more than 65 majors. Over the past five years, our graduates have enjoyed an average 96 percent job placement rate, with 100 percent in education and pharmacy. There's always something new to learn about Butler. Get the facts here."},"867":{"lat":"39.80062757760","lon":"-86.19331095100","title":"Riverside Park","content":"

Riverside Park<\/h3>Riverside Park was founded in 1898 as a section of land 6 miles in length. Two floods terrorized the park in 1904 and 1913. The city zoo originally located in the park closed in 1916, due to municipal restructuring.\u00a0In 1927, Riverside was renamed Taggart Memorial Park,\u00a0 then was changed back to Riverside Park in 1930.\r\n\r\nThe diverse recreation area serves the needs of the Indianapolis area in many ways. Athletic leagues, community and civic meetings, swimming, fitness programs, playgrounds, and large special events are the primary focus.\r\n\r\nRiverside is located five miles from downtown area, but physically situated in a community at 2400 Riverside Drive. The park is bounded by White River on the west, The Riverside Community on the east, South Grove golf course on the south and The Rivers Edge neighborhood on the north."},"865":{"lat":"39.81660562830","lon":"-86.20387553470","title":"Marian University EcoLab","content":"

Marian University EcoLab<\/h3>
\r\n\r\nThe Marian University EcoLab is committed to education about the environment through interaction with the environment.\u00a0 The EcoLab property is a 55-acre natural area on the Marian University campus where environmental restoration began 100 years ago with esteemed landscape architect, Jens Jensen and continues today with Marian students, K-12 school groups, and the general public.\r\n\r\nMarian University students and faculty use the EcoLab in their classes as a site for hands-on experience in the natural environment.\u00a0 It also provides a great location for undergraduate research and for internships in ecological restoration and environmental education.\r\n\r\nThe EcoLab hosts\u00a0outstanding science programs for all ages and a comprehensive array of environmental resources for Pre K-12 students and teachers.\u00a0 Through a Marian University EcoLab experience, be it at the EcoLab itself, at your site, or even via interactive videoconferencing, participants will increase their knowledge and appreciation of the environment, while also being inspired to learn and do more to preserve our precious natural resources.\r\n\r\n<\/div>\r\n<\/div>\r\n<\/div>"},"859":{"lat":"39.82640498030","lon":"-86.18512008880","title":"Indianapolis Museum of Art","content":"

Indianapolis Museum of Art<\/h3>
Encompassing 152 acres of gardens and grounds, the Indianapolis Museum of Art is among the 10 largest and 10 oldest encyclopedic art museums in the United States, and features significant collections of African, American, Asian, European and contemporary art, as well as a newly established collection of design arts. The IMA offers visitors an expansive view of arts and culture through its collection of more than 54,000 works of art that span 5,000 years of history from across the world\u2019s continents. The collections include paintings, sculpture, furniture and design objects, prints, drawings and photographs, as well as textiles and costumes.<\/div>\r\n
Additionally, art, design, and nature are featured at 100 Acres: The Virginia B. Fairbanks Art & Nature Park and Oldfields\u2013Lilly House & Gardens, an historic Country Place Era estate on the IMA grounds. Beyond the Indianapolis campus, in May 2011 the IMA opened to the public the recently acquired landmark Miller House and Garden in Columbus, Indiana. One of the country\u2019s most highly regarded examples of mid-century Modernist residences, Miller House was designed by Eero Saarinen, with interiors by Alexander Girard, and landscape design by Dan Kiley.<\/div>\r\n
Recognizing the IMA\u2019s positive impact on its community, the Museum was named a recipient of the 2009 National Medal for Museum and Library Services \u2013 the nation\u2019s highest honor for museums and libraries. The IMA\u2019s commitment to free general admission, programming for schools and teachers, environmental leadership and online initiatives were among cited community contributions in the Museum\u2019s selection for the award.<\/div>\r\n<\/div>\r\n<\/div>"},"857":{"lat":"39.82928467610","lon":"-86.18952914190","title":"100 Acres: The Virginia B. Fairbanks Art & Nature Park","content":"

100 Acres: The Virginia B. Fairbanks Art & Nature Park<\/h3>Located on 100 acres that include untamed woodlands, wetlands, meadows, and a 35-acre lake adjacent to the Museum, 100 Acres is one of the largest museum art parks in the country, and one of only a few to feature the ongoing commission of temporary, site-responsive artworks. The Park opened in June 2010 with eight inaugural installations by artists Atelier Van Lieshout, Kendall Buster, Jeppe Hein, Alfredo Jaar, Los Carpinteros, Tea M\u00e4kip\u00e4\u00e4, Type A and Andrea Zittel. The Park features a visitors pavilion designed by architect Marlon Blackwell that meets LEED standards while highlighting the surrounding environment and providing a respite for Park visitors. Numerous walking trails, designed by landscape architect Ed Blake, emphasize the macro and microscopic forms found naturally throughout the Park."},"855":{"lat":"39.77599038470","lon":"-86.18638563300","title":"IUPUI Lilly Arbor Project","content":"

IUPUI Lilly Arbor Project<\/h3>The Arbor Project is a restoration of floodplain (low area) along the White River.\r\n\r\nApproximately 1,400 trees have been planted in an eight-acre strip of land between 10th Street and New York Street along the White River in downtown Indianapolis as part of an experimental floodplain reforestation program.\u00a0 Floodplains are the low areas next to rivers into which flood waters spill when the original river channel becomes full.\u00a0 The 1-mile stretch of riverbank used in this project has evolved over the last several years from a wildflower meadow with shrubs and small trees and shrubs to stands of notable sized trees.\u00a0 The trees continue to grow and other species gradually recolonize the area. The massive floodplain restoration experiment is testing the best way to restore riverbanks by comparing the three most common methods for planting trees to restore native forests. A minimum of five years of monitoring and assessment will continue to provide valuable data on reforestation strategies."},"853":{"lat":"39.76699654430","lon":"-86.17117161420","title":"White River State Park","content":"

White River State Park<\/h3>White River State Park was created to highlight the progress, development, cultural, and environmental changes downtown Indianapolis has experienced over the years.\r\n\r\nWhite River State Park offers a variety of attractions on its 250 acres around the banks of the White River.\u00a0 From green space with trails, trees, and waterways to the Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art, the Indianapolis Zoo, the Indiana State Museum, and Victory Field, White River State Park has a lot of offer in the way of recreation, culture, and sense of place along the River.\u00a0 The park, while titled a state park, functions outside of the formal state park system in order to allow the park the ability to build without the restrictions often placed on state agencies.\u00a0 Its highly urban character is a unique aspect to the park and therefore warrants somewhat different management and expectations.\u00a0 White River State Park provides an important interface between city residents and the river.\r\n\r\nDate Project was Installed:<\/strong>\u00a0 1988"}},"":{"651":{"lat":"3","lon":"-86.2010036256","title":"Dam of Crooked Creek","content":"

Dam of Crooked Creek<\/h3>The Marian University EcoLab is on the estate of James Allison, which was built in the early 1900s. Although best known for founding Allison Engineering, Allison Transmission, Prest-O-Lite, and the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, Allison was an engineer entrepreneur that made a fortune by manufacturing headlamps that were less likely to explode than their predecessors. This interest in engineering can be seen in how he manipulated the flow of Crooked Creek. Concrete lines a significant portion of its banks. It is also dammed in three places within a half-mile stretch. Built primarily for aesthetics, the grounds crew would manipulate the flow of water to maintain a pleasing flow over the cobblestone rock of the dam. Today, the water-control structure is inoperable and most of the water flows around the dam.\r\nOver the past 200 years rivers all over Indiana, including the White River, have been manipulated. Recently, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in returning rivers to their natural flow. By doing so, we can decrease flooding and pollution in our waterways."}},"1":{"567":{"lat":"40.2035933572","lon":"-85.3754199344","title":"Whitely Neighborhood Rain Garden","content":"

Whitely Neighborhood Rain Garden<\/h3>The Whitely Neighborhood Rain Garden Project is a natural stormwater management approach that is reducing the volume of runoff and pollutants draining to the White River.\u00a0\u00a0 Upon receiving a Centers for Disease Control Healthy People, Healthy Homes grant, the Muncie Sanitary District and Stormwater Management focused on reducing health risks associated with flooding in one of the City of Muncie's oldest neighborhoods, the Whitely Neighborhood.\u00a0Seventy-two (72) residential rain gardens were installed in the Whitely Neighborhood in 2009 and 2010.\u00a0 Rain gardens are small landscape features that are designed to catch water in a shallow basin and allow the plants within the basin to treat the runoff coming from roofs, sidewalks, and\/or streets.\u00a0The Whitely Neighborhood rain gardens are providing important environmental benefits, reducing the flow of nutrients and other pollutants to the White River.\u00a0The project also provides valuable cultural benefits, educating suburban homeowners on the impacts their small properties have on our environment.\u00a0Visitors are welcome to drive through the Whitely Neighborhood to see some of these gardens."},"565":{"lat":"39.8519893863","lon":"-86.3164855276","title":"Eagle's Crest Nature Preserve","content":"

Eagle's Crest Nature Preserve<\/h3>Eagle\u2019s Crest Nature Preserve is a conservation area that protects and enhances native habitat in the Indianapolis area and also to serve as a source of recreation and education for the citizens.\u00a0This preserve, adjoining the west side of Eagle Creek Reservoir, was dedicated in 1987. It contains excellent examples of old-second growth upland forest communities dominated by red oak, sugar maple, American beech, white oak, shagbark hickory, and ash.\u00a0The best example of the older-second growth forest is located in the northern part of the preserve. Second growth forests are those that regenerate after the initial harvest associated with settlement of the area; they represent notably old stands of trees.\u00a0\u00a0\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a0 1987"},"563":{"lat":"40.1947387008","lon":"-85.3637834108","title":"Craddock Wetlands","content":"

Craddock Wetlands<\/h3>The John M. Craddock Wetland Nature Preserve is a natural feature located next to former industrial sites and adjacent to the White River in Muncie.\u00a0The John M. Craddock Wetland Nature Preserve began as a gift of land to the City of Muncie to honor John M. Craddock\u2019s life-long public service commitment to saving and reviving the White River and the wildlife along its corridor.\u00a0The preserve has been envisioned as an inner city habitat area for plants and animals, an outdoor educational facility, and a passive respite located along the White River Greenway.\u00a0The site is divided into four distinct plant communities: emergent wetland, shrub-carr wetland, prairie, and upland woodland; some areas are existing and others will be planted in the near future.\u00a0Boardwalks, educational signage, and educational programming are also being created.\u00a0These components will be invaluable as they attract and educate individuals on the benefits of wetlands and natural areas.\u00a0The John M. Craddock Wetland Nature Preserve is an important environmental feature, providing flood control, groundwater replenishment (recharge), stormwater filtration, and wildlife habitat.\u00a0 Visitors are welcome to visit the nature preserve."},"561":{"lat":"39.9548848253","lon":"-86.0608413444","title":"Wapihani Nature Preserve","content":"

Wapihani Nature Preserve<\/h3>Wapihani Nature Preserve is a restoration project located along the White River in the rapidly growing town of Fishers.\u00a0Wapihani Nature Preserve was purchased by the Central Indiana Land Trust in early 2006. In the spring of 2008, 19,000 tree seedlings were planted on a portion of the property.\u00a0The other portion was planted with a mix of prairie grasses and wildflowers with islands of tree seedlings.\u00a0Wapihani Nature Preserve provides important benefits to the White River; it reduces erosion, filters pollutants, increases groundwater replenishment (recharge), and provides wildlife habitat.\u00a0This area also provides an important cultural benefit, as it is utilized by the nearby Riverside Middle School as an outdoor educational laboratory.\u00a0Visitors are welcome to visit Wapihani Nature Preserve\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a0 2008"},"559":{"lat":"40.0880768224","lon":"-85.9679668163","title":"Burr Oak Bend","content":"

Burr Oak Bend<\/h3>Burr Oak Bend is a 130-acre floodplain (low area adjacent to a stream) in a bend of the White River in Hamilton County that was restored to prairie and forest beginning in 2002.\u00a0 Previously a farm field in this low area (floodplain) next to a bend in the White River, Burr Oak Bend was restored to native prairie and forest after its acquisition by the Central Indiana Land Trust beginning in August 2002. The site was purchased using Guide Settlement Funds that were designated for restoration of the White River following the fish kill of 1999.\u00a0The purpose of these funds was to improve in-stream aquatic habitat and water quality, as well as provide critical forested stream side habitat for animals in this floodplain.\u00a0Natural floodplains are extremely important, as they provide erosion control and wildlife habitat while also reducing the amount of pollutants, including sediment, entering the White River.\u00a0Restoration of the Burr Oak Bend site included the planting of burr oak, swamp white oak, black walnut, white oak, green ash, shagbark hickory, chinkapin oak, and red oak trees.\u00a0Other areas are undergoing exotic, invasive species removal (removal of plants that are not native to Indiana but are present and spreading quickly) and replanting of native species.\u00a0Burr Oak Bend was acquired by the Central Indiana Land Trust beginning in August 2002.\u00a0Visitors are welcome to visit this site."},"557":{"lat":"39.5377414627","lon":"-86.3855535668","title":"Shalom Woods","content":"

Shalom Woods<\/h3>Shalom Woods is a 14-acre oak-hickory dominated natural area in Morgan County that reduces the quantity of water and pollutants entering the White River. Shalom Woods was a gift from Dr. and Mrs. Irving Cohen. This site is a mixture of high, dry ridges containing plants such as chestnut oak, pignut hickory, and cleft phlox, and wetter ravines containing American beech, yellow trout lily, and bloodroot.\u00a0Natural areas such as Shalom Woods are important because they reduce stormwater runoff, increase groundwater replenishment (recharge), filter pollutants, and provide wildlife habitat.\u00a0Visitors are welcome to visit Shalom Woods, although there are no maintained trails."},"555":{"lat":"39.4956319956","lon":"-86.4036366443","title":"Blue Bluff Nature Preserve","content":"

Blue Bluff Nature Preserve<\/h3>Blue Bluff Nature Preserve is 33 acres of steep shale and siltstone bluffs and includes rugged, forested slopes and upland areas above the West Fork of the White River. This mixed hardwood forest is home to an abundance of ferns and spring wildflowers, including a rare purple-flowering raspberry shrub.\u00a0Environmentally, the Blue Bluff Nature Preserve provides erosion control, groundwater recharge, and wildlife habitat.\u00a0Visitors are welcome to visit the Blue Bluff Nature Preserve."},"553":{"lat":"39.5584988103","lon":"-86.2713757799","title":"Waverly Aquifer","content":"

Waverly Aquifer<\/h3>This aquifer is a valuable source of groundwater that could potentially be tapped to supply water to Indianapolis. Aquifers are underground areas where the ground water is bound between layers of impermeable substances like clay or dense rock. When tapped by a well, water in confined aquifers is forced up, sometimes above the surface. During the last decade, there has been discussion about tapping the Waverly Aquifer to help supply the City of Indianapolis with water during shortages."},"551":{"lat":"39.8936100007","lon":"-86.30278","title":"Traders Point","content":"

Traders Point<\/h3>The Traders Point and Fishback Creek area is an important cultural site, demonstrating how water shaped relationships between Native Americans, traders, and early settlers.\u00a0\u00a0 The area around Traders Point illustrates the importance of water and the tension that developed between the Native Americans and the early settlers. A plentiful supply of good water was critical to both and areas that the Native Americans found desirable were also desirable to the early settlers. The smaller streams of McCurdy Creek and Fishback Creek provided a regular source of drinking water and the larger Eagle Creek provided transportation downstream to the White River. There are stories that the area around Traders Point was an early trading site for Native Americans and French fur traders and that the area was the site of at least a seasonal Native American settlement. Numerous stone points and tools collected in the area seem to support this claim. It is known that the area was part of the property surrendered by the Miami tribe in 1818. That treaty allowed the Miami to occupy the area until 1821. Early settlers were arriving before the Miami were gone. James Harman, a veteran of the War of 1812 is reported to have arrived in 1820 and David McCurdy (McCurdy Creek) arrived in 1821. A mill was built on Eagle Creek near Traders Point in 1864. Most of the area is now part of the Starling Nature Sanctuary, a natural area that is part of Eagle Creek Park.\r\n\r\n "},"549":{"lat":"39.8860626965","lon":"-86.3083146424","title":"Starling Nature Sanctuary EC","content":"

Starling Nature Sanctuary EC<\/h3>The Scott Starling Nature Sanctuary was created to restore this area, which was once agricultural fields, back to its natural environment; the nature sanctuary now provides wildlife habitat, flood control, and air and water quality improvement while educating students and the public on the benefits of wetlands and natural habitats. Forty-six acres along the northern boundary of Eagle Creek Park were dedicated in 1993 as a refuge for birds, mammals, and plants.\u00a0Indiana University \u2013Purdue University Indianapolis\u2019 Center for Earth and Environmental Science is working on restoring this biologically diverse (meaning that it contains a wide variety of plants and animals) groundwater-fed wetland system.\u00a0 Restoring this rare wetland type will increase biological diversity, provide a rich location for environmental education and awareness, and create an important area for nature appreciation by the citizens of Indiana.\u00a0As the hydrology (connections to water, including nearby streams, rivers, and groundwater) is restored, wetland plants will return to the site and exotic plant species (those not native to Indiana) will continue to be removed, as will existing turf grass.\u00a0Ten groundwater monitoring wells have been installed to monitor the level of the groundwater around the wetland and track its chemical characteristics.\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a01993"},"547":{"lat":"39.4331105389","lon":"-86.4423076171","title":"South Wellfield","content":"

South Wellfield<\/h3>Indianapolis Water's supply for customers comes from several sources. A number of wells, including the South Well Field Water Treatment Facility, are used intermittently to supplement the supplies to the White River, White River North and Fall Creek plants.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 The South Well Field Water Treatment Facility is not a surface drinking water plant; it is a facility fed by underground water.\u00a0 There are 19 large underground wells providing water for homes, schools, and businesses within a 30 mile area around the facility. The South Well Field Water Treatment Facility typically provides 15 million gallons a day (MGD) of clean fresh water.\u00a0The South Well Field is one of four Indianapolis Water ground water stations that serve smaller portions of its service area.\u00a0The other three stations are the Geist Station, Harding Station, and Ford Road plant. These ground water stations treat and distribute water pumped from underground water sources called aquifers."},"545":{"lat":"40.1138354133","lon":"-85.6993267428","title":"Riverbend Invasive Species","content":"

Riverbend Invasive Species<\/h3>This conservation project was undertaken to remove harmful invasive plant species and reestablish native species, which will help provide erosion control and wildlife habitat at Riverbend Park.\u00a0The City of Anderson and Red-Tail Conservancy manage Riverbend Park, and the Red-Tail Conservancy holds the conservation easement of a new 12 acre expansion. This easement, a voluntary commitment from the landowner, restricts use of the site so that it will remain a natural area in perpetuity.\u00a0Funds for this project were used to expand the original 30 acre protected naturalized park area by the additional 12 acres, establish a perpetual conservation easement over the park expansion, and restore the health of the stream side plant community on the entire 42 acre facility.\u00a0A 17 acre agricultural area was converted to native prairie during the initial 30 acre park land acquisition.\u00a0Except for the prairie area, the property was overwhelmed with exotic, invasive plants (species that are not native to Indiana but are present and quickly spreading).\u00a0Upon control of the invasive species, native trees will be planted throughout the wetter areas in order to provide cover and reduce the likelihood of future invasive species outbreaks.\u00a0The reestablished healthy plant community will provide habitat for wildlife and act as buffer strip to prevent erosion along the White River during flood events. The City of Anderson has now built a recreational trail by which users can experience this growing habitat."},"543":{"lat":"39.8471236476","lon":"-86.3059791693","title":"Eagle Creek Reservoir","content":"

Eagle Creek Reservoir<\/h3>Eagle Creek Reservoir supplies Indianapolis and the surrounding areas with drinking water. It is fed by Eagle Creek on the north and the reservoir overflow is directed to the creek again in the south. In 1975, Eagle Creek Reservoir was completed in order to control flooding; it is a 1,350 acre impoundment containing 6.7 billion gallons of water. The reservoir is located about 10 miles northwest of Indianapolis at an elevation of 790 feet and one of its primary purposes is water supply.\u00a0The dam that creates Eagle Creek Reservoir is located at the reservoir's southern end.\u00a0The main tributaries joining Eagle Creek above the reservoir include Dixon Branch, Finley Creek, Kreager Ditch, Mounts Run, Jackson Run, Woodruff Branch, Little Eagle Branch, and Long Branch. School Branch and Fishback Creek, along with Eagle Creek, flow directly into the reservoir.\u00a0Eagle Creek flows from the reservoir at the southern end, eventually discharging into the White River south of downtown Indianapolis.\u00a0The T.W. Moses Treatment Plant is supplied by the reservoir and supplies about 7.5% of raw water needs of the area.\u00a0The reservoir is owned by the City of Indianapolis Department of Public Works."},"540":{"lat":"40.1087552651","lon":"-86.0404195302","title":"Morse Reservoir","content":"

Morse Reservoir<\/h3>Morse Reservoir supplies Indianapolis and surrounding areas with drinking water. It is fed by Cicero Creek to the north and the reservoir overflow is directed to the creek again at the south. Morse Reservoir was constructed in 1955 as the third water supply reservoir for the City of Indianapolis.\u00a0 Morse has 1,500 acres of water (totaling 7.44 billion gallons), 35 miles of shoreline, and 7 miles of navigable water. It is formed by Big Cicero Creek and Little Cicero Creek and empties into the White River. Its waters eventually flow through the Broad Ripple Dam, the White River Canal, and the White River and White River North water treatment plants.\u00a0Natural stream flow in White River is supplemented by releases from Morse to provide ample drinking water supplies to Indianapolis area residents. The reservoir, at an elevation of 810 feet, supplies about 7.5% of raw water needs to the City of Indianapolis and is owned by the City of Indianapolis Department of Waterworks."},"538":{"lat":"39.9239398753","lon":"-85.9459218533","title":"Geist Reservoir","content":"

Geist Reservoir<\/h3>Geist Reservoir supplies Indianapolis and surrounding areas with drinking water.\u00a0\u00a0 It is fed by Fall Creek on the north and the reservoir overflow is directed to the creek again in the south. Geist Reservoir was named after Clarence Geist, a former owner of the Indianapolis Water Company.\u00a0 The dam that creates Geist Reservoir is located at the reservoir's southern end and was completed in 1943. Geist Reservoir is fed by Fall Creek to the north, but since flow in Fall Creek is variable, it is sometimes supplemented by storage in Geist.\u00a0 The reservoir overflow is directed into Fall Creek again at the south.\u00a0 Geist Reservoir is 1,890 acres, contains 6.2 billion gallons of water, and spans three counties in Indiana (Marion, Hamilton, and Hancock).\u00a0 The reservoir, at an elevation of 785 feet, supplies approximately 12% of raw water to the City of Indianapolis and is owned by the City of Indianapolis Department of Waterworks."},"536":{"lat":"40.1247202304","lon":"-85.2887009348","title":"Prairie Creek Reservoir","content":"

Prairie Creek Reservoir<\/h3>Prairie Creek Reservoir is fed by Prairie Creek and supplies Muncie, Indiana with water.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 Prairie Creek Reservoir is located in Delaware County in east-central Indiana at an elevation of 985 feet. It serves as a secondary water supply for the City of Muncie through water releases into the White River during dry seasons. The reservoir also provides a venue for recreation such as fishing, camping, and boating. It is owned by the Indiana-American Water Company, but is leased and maintained by the City of Muncie Department of Parks. The reservoir was formed by the construction of a dam across Prairie Creek in 1958; it drains into the White River.\u00a0 There are 15 miles of shoreline and 1,252 acres of surface area (totaling 7.44 billion gallons of water)."},"534":{"lat":"40.0987685858","lon":"-85.3002366583","title":"Red Tail Nature Preserve","content":"

Red Tail Nature Preserve<\/h3>The Red-Tail Nature Preserve is a restoration project that is educating the public on the importance of our environment while also reducing the volume of water and pollutants sent to the White River. The Red-Tail Nature Preserve is a restoration project undertaken in 1999 by the Red-Tail Conservancy with help from the Ball Brothers Foundation.\u00a0 This land acquisition project linked Prairie Creek Reservoir Park and the Cardinal Greenway, two of Delaware County\u2019s largest wildlife habitats and recreational areas.The Red-Tail Conservancy constructed the nature preserve as a passive outdoor educational facility that would provide important cultural benefits while educating and motivating individuals to care about the land.\u00a0It contains several trails, informational kiosks, and a potential site for a nature center. The restored prairie and woodland areas provide important environmental benefits including groundwater replenishment (recharge), reduced stormwater runoff, erosion control, and wildlife habitat. The Red-Tail Nature Preserve provides a vital corridor for animals, connects people with premier outdoor recreation facilities, and fosters human relationships with the land. Visitors are welcome to visit the Red-Tail Nature Preserve."},"532":{"lat":"40.1217188389","lon":"-85.2825343725","title":"Prairie Creek Bioswale","content":"

Prairie Creek Bioswale<\/h3>The Prairie Creek Reservoir Bioswale is a low impact development stormwater management practice that is reducing erosion and sediment flow into the Prairie Creek Reservoir.\u00a0 This is an important feature for the residents of Delaware County, but it also affects the entire White River Watershed.\u00a0\u00a0 Prairie Creek Reservoir Bioswale was placed above the beach area at the reservoir to capture and slowly release rain water that had been eroding the beach and creating gullies every year.\u00a0 Approximately 125 tons of sand was being washed into the reservoir annually due to large amounts of runoff from areas like the parking lot.\u00a0 The new bioswale intercepts and slows this stormwater runoff, reducing erosion and preventing sediment from entering the reservoir.\u00a0 Bioswales are typically long, gently sloped vegetated ditches filled with native plants (including many wetland plants) that are designed to remove silt and pollution running off of hard surfaces like streets and parking lots.\u00a0 Visitors are welcome to visit the Prairie Creek Reservoir Bioswale."},"530":{"lat":"39.8008765181","lon":"-86.0881261274","title":"Pogue's Run Greenway","content":"

Pogue's Run Greenway<\/h3>Pogue\u2019s Run Park is a flood control basin designed to minimize the extent of flooding within the adjacent floodplain and to reduce downstream flooding within the City of Indianapolis.\u00a0Pogue\u2019s Run Park was designed as a flood control basin to minimize the extent of flooding within the adjacent floodplain and to reduce downstream flooding within the City of Indianapolis. It also serves to improve water quality through a series of sediment filtering engineered wetlands and associated open water habitat. The 14.34 acres of wetlands and 8.11 acres of open water are designed to create varied wetland plant community types and promote sheet flow of water as it passes through the site.\u00a0 Sheet flow is when water spreads out and runs off across a large area instead of collecting in channels and flowing off.\u00a0Flow in channels can be harmful to the environment as it tends to create erosion and concentrate pollutants. The Pogue\u2019s Run Park engineered wetlands and upland ecosystems also provide much-needed wildlife habitat, as well as active and passive recreation opportunities for the community.\u00a0The flood basin includes a 1.5-mile loop trail, a new parking lot, wetland and prairie vegetation, and many open, grassy areas providing ample opportunity for educational programs."},"528":{"lat":"39.6548111683","lon":"-86.3264213387","title":"Indy Airport Wetlands","content":"

Indy Airport Wetlands<\/h3>The Indianapolis Airport Authority Wetland Mitigation Project is a created wetland that provides flood control, reduces erosion and pollutants, and recharges groundwater aquifers in the White River Watershed.\u00a0The Indianapolis Airport Authority Wetland Mitigation Project was created in the summer of 2009.\u00a0The project was undertaken due to impacts to existing streams and wetlands in the areas affected by the planned airport expansion. Wetlands provide an important function in the landscape and therefore federal and state laws require that any necessary impacts to them be offset by the creation and enhancement of other wetlands.\u00a0The new wetland area, encompassing approximately three acres, will mimic the processes of natural wetlands - flood control, groundwater replenishment (recharge), pollutant filtration, and wildlife habitat.\u00a0Visitors are welcome to visit the Indianapolis Airport Authority Wetland Mitigation Project.\u00a0\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a0 2009"},"520":{"lat":"39.9034058047","lon":"-86.2281017766","title":"Humane Society Stream Restoration","content":"

Humane Society Stream Restoration<\/h3>The Humane Society Stream Restoration project utilizes several best management practices (BMPs) to improve water quality and stabilize stream banks along the Oil Branch of Crooked Creek.\u00a0The State of Indiana and the Humane Society of Indianapolis have restored and continue to maintain the stream banks located along the Humane Society\u2019s properties.\u00a0Part of this includes the removal of exotic, invasive plants (species that are not native to Indiana but are present and spreading quickly) along Oil Branch of Crooked Creek for 1,000 linear feet.\u00a0The project also includes setting up a maintenance control program for five years to control weed species.\u00a0Much of this is being done to ensure that the bank stabilization project described below will be successful.\r\n\u00a0In addition, approximately 900 feet of Payne Branch was stabilized using natural materials and the channel was redesigned to repair severely eroded stream banks.\u00a0 Four major project areas were completed and multiple stream bank stabilization techniques were implemented.\u00a0Native plant material was used to help with stabilization and soil loss along the banks.\u00a0All of these techniques were used to decrease the flood potential and provide a healthier stream environment."},"518":{"lat":"40.172356992","lon":"-85.367410949","title":"18th and Macedonia Stormsewer Green Infrastructure","content":"

18th and Macedonia Stormsewer Green Infrastructure<\/h3>The 18th and Macedonia Stormsewer\/Green Infrastructure Project is a stormwater infrastructure replacement and improvement project that will improve the quality of runoff draining from this residential neighborhood to the White River.\u00a0 After years of flooding that destroyed roads and devastated homes, the Muncie Sanitary District undertook the huge task of replacing an inadequate drain (originally installed in 1890) with bioswales at all stormwater inlets around the intersection of 18th and Macedonia.\u00a0 Bioswales are typically long, gently sloped vegetated ditches filled with native plants (including many wetland plants) designed to remove sediment and other pollution from water that is running off of streets and sidewalks.\u00a0 This project provides both environmental and social benefits.\u00a0 Environmentally, these planted landscape swales filter and slow the stormwater before it enters the street drains, therefore improving its quality.\u00a0 Socially, the project revitalizes a 1950's neighborhood that has suffered years of flooding and destruction.\u00a0 Visitors are welcome to visit the site, although some of the project runs through private property and will not be visible from the road.\u00a0 The 18th and Macedonia Stormsewer\/Green Infrastructure Project was completed in the fall of 2010."},"515":{"lat":"40.2033324997","lon":"-85.36741094900","title":"Minnetrista Riverbank Restoration","content":"

Minnetrista Riverbank Restoration<\/h3>Minnetrista sits on the north banks of the White River.\u00a0 Invasive species control and restoration of native species in this area is very important for providing erosion control and wildlife habitat.\u00a0The Minnetrista riverbank is an important area for the water quality of the White River.\u00a0This 4.4 acre piece of property is a highly visible site to the community and is critical for the overall health of the river in this area.\u00a0The monitoring, removal, and control of exotic, invasive plant species (those plants not native to Indiana but present and spreading quickly), specifically bush honeysuckle, has occurred over a multi-year period.\u00a0 The removal process utilized low impact techniques such as hand removal, de-brushing tools, and spot chemical treatments (burns).\u00a0These control methods were used to protect desirable plant species that are present. In addition to this restoration project, annual educational programs focus on the restoration processes at Minnetrista and large scale ecological and stream restoration as a whole."},"512":{"lat":"39.7715951761","lon":"-86.0832583637","title":"Pleasant Run","content":"

Pleasant Run<\/h3>Pleasant Run is a tributary of the White River; a tributary is a small stream that flows into a larger stream or river, in this case the White River.Pleasant Run is facing numerous water quality challenges, but the City of Indianapolis is taking steps to remedy many of its issues.\u00a0Pleasant Run is a small tributary to the White River that serves as an example of the Indianapolis Greenway system and the historic Kessler Plan for Indianapolis Parks that was developed from 1908 to 1915. The Kessler Plan followed the garden city goals of the late 19th century and provided connections between public spaces in Indianapolis by developing greenways, or linear parks, along White River, Fall Creek, Pleasant Run, and Pogue\u2019s Run. The system fell into disuse for a number of years while Indianapolis, like many cities, struggled with population change and suburban development.\u00a0Further decline resulted from the city\u2019s combined sewer system which discharges raw sewage into city streams following even small amounts of rainfall.\u00a0Pleasant Run is of significant concern in terms of combined sewers systems, as a large number of them are located along this tributary.\u00a0As Indianapolis has rebounded, the Parks Department has resurrected and added to the historic Kessler Plan. The result is a series of greenways that link parks and public spaces throughout the city; the city continues to enhance and redevelop the greenway system. Naturalization goals have been developed for most of the greenway streams to complement the city\u2019s Long Term Control Plan which is designed to control sewage discharges. The result is a more livable city \u2013 in keeping with Kessler\u2019s original plan.\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a01908 \u2013 ongoing\r\n\r\n "},"508":{"lat":"39.7710720621","lon":"-86.1525120004","title":"Indianapolis Cultural Trail","content":"

Indianapolis Cultural Trail<\/h3>The Cultural Trail is an urban bike and pedestrian path that utilizes special planters and other stormwater best management practices (BMPs) to improve water quality.\u00a0It is located in downtown Indianapolis.\u00a0Started in 2007, the Indianapolis Cultural Trail is an urban bike and pedestrian path installed to connect the five downtown cultural districts of Indianapolis.\u00a0The addition of the greenway to the City of Indianapolis has added significant green space to the downtown area and has helped promote the use of more sustainable modes of transportation.\u00a0Stormwater planters have been installed along the Cultural Trail; these open bottom planters allow for the stormwater running off of streets and sidewalks to drain into the ground, filter through soil, replenish the groundwater, and prevent polluted urban stormwater from reaching local streams.\u00a0The first half-mile of the trail along Alabama Street from North Street to Market Street has been planted with 60 new trees and 16,000 square feet of new shrubs and perennials, all replacing concrete and asphalt. The plantings will also improve air quality and make downtown greener and more beautiful.\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a0The project started in 2007 and will be completed in five stages."},"506":{"lat":"40.2033324997","lon":"-85.3917057924","title":"Minnetrista Greenway","content":"

Minnetrista Greenway<\/h3>Minnetrista sits on the north banks of the White River.\u00a0 Invasive species control and restoration of native species in this area is very important for providing erosion control and wildlife habitat.\u00a0The Minnetrista riverbank is an important area for the water quality of the White River. This 4.4 acre piece of property is a highly visible site to the community and is critical for the overall health of the river in this area.\u00a0The monitoring, removal, and control of exotic, invasive plant species (those plants not native to Indiana but present and spreading quickly), specifically bush honeysuckle, has occurred over a multi-year period.\u00a0 The removal process utilized low impact techniques such as hand removal, de-brushing tools, and spot chemical treatments (burns).\u00a0These control methods were used to protect desirable plant species that are present.\u00a0In addition to this restoration project, annual educational programs focus on the restoration processes at Minnetrista and large scale ecological and stream restoration as a whole"},"504":{"lat":"39.770037","lon":"-86.146314","title":"The Nature Conservancy","content":"

The Nature Conservancy<\/h3>The Efroymson Conservation Center is a great example of low impact development.\u00a0 The Nature Conservancy's new Indiana headquarters is a certified Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-Platinum building.\u00a0 It is located in the heart of Indianapolis and its property drains to the White River.\u00a0\u00a0 Construction of the Efroymson Conservation Center was completed in March 2010.\u00a0 Pervious pavement (pavement that allows water to soak through), an underground infiltration gallery (a location for water to seep back into the groundwater), and two green roofs together create a stormwater management system that prevents any runoff from leaving the site.\u00a0 The property utilizes native plant species in the landscaping, thus reducing the need for irrigation.\u00a0 A large rain water cistern also allow for other non-consumptive uses of water (including watering indoor plants or washing windows) to be supplied by harvesting rain water.\u00a0 Collectively, these practices reduce a large amount of runoff volume and pollutants from entering the White River that would otherwise be transported via the already-overloaded combined sewer system in Indianapolis.\u00a0 Visitors are welcome to visit The Efroymson Conservation Center.\r\n\r\nAddress: 620 East Ohio Street"},"502":{"lat":"40.129016","lon":"-85.953247","title":"Strawtown Koteewi \"Prairie\" Park","content":"

Strawtown Koteewi \"Prairie\" Park<\/h3>Strawtown Koteewi Park is an important park for archaeological history.\u00a0 Local university students contribute their time to the collection of artifacts found on this property.\u00a0 It is believed that the major occupancy of the park dates back to 1200-1400 A.D.\u00a0 Artifacts such as arrowheads and pottery, as well as postholes, storage pits, and fire pits, have been discovered on the site.\u00a0 In addition to the rich history at this site, the 750 acre park also features a canoe launch to the White River, nature trails, and wetlands and prairies.\u00a0\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a0 1999\r\n\r\nAddress: 12308 E. Strawtown Ave."},"498":{"lat":"39.65339","lon":"-86.240903","title":"Southwestway Park","content":"

Southwestway Park<\/h3>Southwestway Park was created to preserve some of the most outstanding geological features in Central Indiana.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 Southwestway Park is joined with Winding River Golf Course and Cottonwood Lakes in Southwest Indianapolis. This oxbow (u-shaped) floodplain property has been designed and restored for passive recreation including hiking and bird watching. The park has many features including floodplain (low, stream-side) forest and upland forest.\u00a0 In 2002, the community, along with the Park Foundation helped purchase an additional 101 acres to expand the park.\u00a0 It is now Indy Park\u2019s second largest park (Eagle Creek Park is the largest).\r\n\r\nAddress: 8400 Mann Road"},"486":{"lat":"39.747304","lon":"-85.954376","title":"Southeastway Park","content":"

Southeastway Park<\/h3>The Southeastway Park was established as a nature park for the enjoyment of area residents. Southeastway Park is a 188-acre regional nature park consisting of 80 acres of forest, a pond and wetland, open fields and meadows, a prairie preserve, and portions of Buck Creek. It is managed by the Environmental Education and Land Stewardship Division of Indy Parks.\u00a0Of the 188 acres, approximately 95 acres are natural areas consisting of floodplain woods (low, stream-side forest areas), successional fields (fields that are transitioning to woods), prairie plantings, and an excavated wetland and pond. The remaing acres make up the turf areas, parking lots, roads, and buildings of the park. Buck Creek runs through the woods in the western section of the park.\r\n\r\nAddress: 5624 South Carroll Road"},"476":{"lat":"39.826265","lon":"-86.139843","title":"Pathway to Water Quality","content":"

Pathway to Water Quality<\/h3>The Pathway to Water Quality was created to demonstrate how the land \"sheds\" excess water and how that affects citizens.\u00a0The Pathway to Water Quality is a model watershed demonstration site located at the Indiana State Fairgrounds. The site shows how proper management practices at home, on the farm, and in business can protect our soil and water resources. The demonstration answers three important questions:\u00a0\u201cWhat can I do at home?\u201d\u00a0 \u201cHow does soil affect water quality?\u201d and \u201cWhat can I do on the farm and in woodlands?\u201d. Anyone visiting the State Fairgrounds is welcome to walk through the Pathway to Water Quality.\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a01993\r\n\r\nAddress: 1202 E 38th Street"},"474":{"lat":"40.0405839","lon":"-85.7394811","title":"Nestle Company","content":"

Nestle Company<\/h3>The Nestl\u00e9 plant in Anderson was developed to meet growing U.S. consumer demand for Nestl\u00e9 Nesquik Ready-to-Drink and Nestl\u00e9 Coffee-mate Liquid products.\u00a0\u00a0 The 1 million square foot factory has applied for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification.\u00a0 This means that the building meets a number of standards for environmentally sustainable construction set by the US Green Building Council (USGBC).\u00a0 The facility contains a wastewater recovery system for reuse in cooling towers, as well as recyclable resin packaging, and low emission natural gas boilers.\u00a0\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a0 2005\r\n\r\nAddress: 4301 W 73rd Street"},"471":{"lat":"40.19583","lon":"-85.386949","title":"Muncie City Hall","content":"

Muncie City Hall<\/h3>The native landscaping installed around Muncie's City Hall has reduced the amount of irrigation needed and the amount of fertilizer and pesticides being applied, conserving our water resources and reducing the amounts of these pollutants entering the White River.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 Native landscaping was installed around Muncie City Hall by the Muncie Storm Water Department.\u00a0 Over 75 different species of perennial flowers, grasses, trees, and shrubs were installed.\u00a0 The focus of the landscape design was to decrease stormwater running off into street storm drains, lower maintenance costs, and increase the beauty around City Hall.\u00a0 The use of native plant material has drastically reduced the need for irrigation, conserving water resources and reducing additional stormwater runoff.\u00a0 These species have also reduced the need for fertilizer and pesticides, lessening the runoff of these common pollutants into the White River.\u00a0 Muncie City Hall's native landscaping is also an important cultural tool, giving visitors an opportunity to learn about native plants and their potential use in their own backyards and businesses.\u00a0 Visitors are very welcome to visit Muncie City Hall and enjoy its native landscape.\u00a0\r\n\r\nAddress: 300 North High Street"},"469":{"lat":"40.095788","lon":"-85.620107","title":"Mounds State Park","content":"

Mounds State Park<\/h3>Mounds State Park was established to protect and preserve some of the finest mound building and earthwork in the state of Indiana.\u00a0\u00a0 Mounds State Park is home to some of the finest Native American earthwork and mound building in Indiana.\u00a0 The mounds are believed to have been built by the Adena and Hopewell cultures for religious ceremonies, as well as keeping track of the seasons.\u00a0 After the Adena and Hopewell, the Bronnenberg family owned the site.\u00a0 One of the sons built a two-story brick farmhouse in the 1840s.\u00a0 Still standing today, every bit of the house was constructed from the surrounding woodlands and the limestone foundation was quarried from the nearby White River.\u00a0 Some of the land was leased to the Indiana Union Traction Company, which operated an amusement park on the south end of the property.\u00a0 Due to the struggles of the Great Depression, the property was purchased by the Madison County Historical Society which then donated it to the state of Indiana.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a0 Became a State Park in October 1930\r\n\r\nAddressL Mounds State Park was established to protect and preserve some of the finest mound building and earthwork in the state of Indiana.\u00a0\u00a0 Mounds State Park is home to some of the finest Native American earthwork and mound building in Indiana.\u00a0 The mounds are believed to have been built by the Adena and Hopewell cultures for religious ceremonies, as well as keeping track of the seasons.\u00a0 After the Adena and Hopewell, the Bronnenberg family owned the site.\u00a0 One of the sons built a two-story brick farmhouse in the 1840s.\u00a0 Still standing today, every bit of the house was constructed from the surrounding woodlands and the limestone foundation was quarried from the nearby White River.\u00a0 Some of the land was leased to the Indiana Union Traction Company, which operated an amusement park on the south end of the property.\u00a0 Due to the struggles of the Great Depression, the property was purchased by the Madison County Historical Society which then donated it to the state of Indiana.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a0 Became a State Park in October 1930\r\n\r\nAddress: 4306 Mounds Road"},"467":{"lat":"40.2056717","lon":"-85.3899485","title":"Minnetrista Cultural Center","content":"

Minnetrista Cultural Center<\/h3>A study of the cultural needs of East Central Indiana determined that a facility was needed to preserve the cultural heritage of the region.\u00a0 The Minnetrista Nature Area was built to reclaim an old gravel pit.\u00a0\u00a0 In 1893, the Ball family (Ball canning jars) purchased the majority of the land along the north bank of the White River between Wheeling and Granville Pikes after moving its glass manufacturing business from Buffalo, New York to Muncie in 1887.\u00a0 The family named the property Minnetrista after a combination of the Sioux work \"mna\" meaning water and English word \"tryst\", a meeting place; Minnetrista means a gathering place by the water.\u00a0 The Minnetrista Cultural Center includes a six acre nature area.\u00a0 Formerly a gravel pit, the nature area now features three distinct habitats - a manmade pond and stormwater swale system, a young woodland, and a vibrant tall grass prairie.\u00a0 The stormwater swale system captures water from the cultural center building and off of the Minnetrista parkway. The water then travels through three different swales (gently sloped vegetated channels) before reaching the pond. The swales successfully filter sediment and other nutrients out of the water as it makes it way to the pond.\u00a0 The pond is home to turtles, fish, dragonflies, ducks, and many other forms of wildlife, while the land provides food and shelter for a variety of other animals. Because of the diversity of habitats, the nature area is used for many school tours and other scheduled programs.\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a0 1988\r\n\r\nAddress: 1200 N Minnetrista Parkway"},"463":{"lat":"39.8865052","lon":"-86.1458433","title":"Marott Park Woods Nature Preserve","content":"

Marott Park Woods Nature Preserve<\/h3>The Marott Park Woods Nature Preserve is a natural area adjacent to Williams Creek and the White River.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 The Marott Park Woods Nature Preserve was donated to the City of Indianapolis by the Marott family to be used as a natural area.\u00a0 The site is composed of an old mixed upland forest in the north and floodplain forest and fields along Williams Creek and the White River to the south.\u00a0 Although this is a natural area, it still requires some management.\u00a0 Ongoing restoration of the area includes removal of bush honeysuckle and garlic mustard (which are problematic plant species because they are not native to Indiana and tend to take over and crowd out beneficial plants), erosion control, and hardwood tree restoration.\u00a0 The Marott Park Woods Nature Preserve is important environmentally because it is adjacent to two bodies of water, directly impacting their water quality.\u00a0 The natural areas provide erosion control, groundwater replenishment (recharge), and wildlife habitat in this urban area.\u00a0 Visitors are welcome to visit the nature preserve year-round, although spring is an ideal time while the area boasts a nice show of wildflowers.\u00a0\r\n\r\nAddress: 7350 N College Ave"},"459":{"lat":"40.2074661","lon":"-85.3654927","title":"Longfellow Elementary School","content":"

Longfellow Elementary School<\/h3>The Longfellow Elementary School Rain Garden is a low impact development practice that is reducing the quantity and improving the quality of stormwater runoff to the White River.\u00a0\u00a0 The Longfellow Elementary School Rain Garden was created in 2009 when the Muncie Sanitary District and Stormwater Management received a Healthy People, Healthy Homes grant from the Centers for Disease Control.\u00a0 The purpose of this project was to redesign and rebuild existing drainage areas into rain garden complexes.\u00a0 Rain gardens are small landscape features that are designed to catch water in a shallow basin and allow the plants within the basin to treat the runoff coming from roofs, sidewalks, and\/or parking areas at the school.\u00a0 The roots of the native sedges, grasses, and wildflowers planted in the garden help water soak back into the ground, replenishing the groundwater and removing the pollutants from the roof and parking lots.\u00a0 They also help reduce the volume of water rushing into the White River during a storm that may otherwise increase erosion.\u00a0 The rain garden also provides an important cultural benefit by exposing children to natural stormwater management practices and native plants.\u00a0 Visitors are welcome to visit the Longfellow Elementary School Rain Garden, but please check in with the front office first.\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a0 2009\r\n\r\nAddress: 1900 East Centennial Avenue"},"457":{"lat":"39.757551","lon":"-86.140493","title":"Keep Indianapolis Beautiful","content":"

Keep Indianapolis Beautiful<\/h3>The Keep Indianapolis Beautiful Building is a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-Gold Certified building surrounded by many low-impact development features.\u00a0 It is located in the heart of Indianapolis and its environmental practices reduce volume and pollutants sent to the White River.\u00a0\u00a0 The Keep Indianapolis Beautiful (KIB) headquarters was remodeled in 2007 to meet LEED Gold Standards.\u00a0 LEED, or Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, is an internationally-recognized green building certification system.\u00a0 Developed by the US Green Building Council in March 2000, LEED provides building owners and operators with a framework for identifying and implementing practical and measurable green building design, construction, operations, and maintenance solutions.\u00a0 Formerly a contaminated property and abandoned warehouse at the corner of Fletcher and Shelby in Fountain Square, the headquarters is now an environmentally-friendly building surrounded by native landscaping, rain gardens, and a large rain water harvesting system.\u00a0 These practices are reducing and filtering stormwater runoff to the White River.\u00a0 The site is also a tremendous cultural benefit, setting an example for other urban sites and educating Indianapolis residents about how redevelopment can be done is an environmentally friendly way.\u00a0 Visitors are welcome to visit the Keep Indianapolis Beautiful headquarters.\r\n\r\nAddress: 1029 Fletcher Ave"},"455":{"lat":"39.88047","lon":"-86.274758","title":"Intech Park","content":"

Intech Park<\/h3>InTech Park is the largest office development in Indiana and a great example of natural stormwater and retention pond management, undoubtedly improving the quality of stormwater runoff draining to the White River.\u00a0\u00a0 InTech Park was started in July 1999 and continues to grow.\u00a0 The offices, restaurants, banks, and other facilities located at the business park share their land with naturalized retention ponds and a small wetland area that accepts stormwater runoff from the main road.\u00a0 Two and a half miles of trails allow users to enjoy and learn to appreciate the beauty of the natural areas that are incorporated into this large commercial complex.\u00a0 The environmental benefits provided by InTech Park include reduced stormwater runoff, improved water quality, and increased wildlife habitat.\u00a0 Equally as important is its cultural benefit - instilling an environmental ethic in its users and changing the way typical developments are viewed.\u00a0 Visitors are absolutely welcome to visit InTech Park, tour its natural areas, and walk its trails.\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a0 1999\r\n\r\nAddress: 7010 Intech Blvd"},"453":{"lat":"39.792498","lon":"-86.201994","title":"Indy Municipal Gardens","content":"

Indy Municipal Gardens<\/h3>This area was the original site of the Indianapolis Canoe Club and has served as a venue for indoor and outdoor recreation ever since.\u00a0\u00a0 Ironically, the Indianapolis Municipal Gardens do not have any gardens on the property and never did.\u00a0 Adjacent to the White River, the property first started as the Indianapolis Canoe Club in 1910.\u00a0\u00a0 After years as a social club for the elite, a casino, and popular jazz spot, the property lost its popularity.\u00a0 In 1927, the Indianapolis Parks Department purchased the property and the site became known as the Municipal Gardens.\u00a0 The Municipal Gardens continued to host dance bands, but the focus of the building began to change in the 1950's to that of physical recreation.\u00a0 Today, the Municipal Garden Community Center is known for the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) basketball program which is hosted there.\u00a0 Besides this indoor recreation, however, the Municipal Gardens also boast an outdoor shelter, a spray park, and a fishing pier.\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a0 1910\r\n\r\nAddress: 1831 Lafayette Road"},"451":{"lat":"39.871071","lon":"-86.1612339","title":"Holliday Park","content":"

Holliday Park<\/h3>Holliday Park was established to preserve the land for recreation and the study of nature.\u00a0\u00a0 Located along the banks of the White River, Holliday Park is one of Indianapolis' oldest parks.\u00a0 The park came to be in 1916 when John and Evaline Holliday donated their country estate to the city and stated that \"the land is singularly suited to be a place for recreation and the study of nature.\"\u00a0 The 95 acre park is one of the most environmentally diverse in Marion County with natural springs and wetlands, a beech-maple forest, over 400 species of trees, shrubs, and wildflowers, and a variety of native animals.\u00a0\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a0 1916\r\n\r\nAddress: 6363 Spring Mill Road"},"449":{"lat":"40.116709","lon":"-85.703736","title":"Grandview Golf Course","content":"

Grandview Golf Course<\/h3>The Grandview Golf Course project utilized several best management practices (BMPs) to improve water quality and stabilize the stream bank along the White River.\u00a0\u00a0 A sharp bend in the White River had been causing severe erosion on the stream banks and adjacent Grandview Golf Course property.\u00a0 Funding from the White River Restoration Fund made it possible for a bank stabilization project to occur.\u00a0 The goals of this project were to create habitat for fish and wildlife, improve water quality by reducing sediment and nutrient loading, and increase public safety along the banks of the White River.\u00a0 In order to control the bank erosion along approximately 4,200 linear feet of bank, numerous techniques were implemented.\u00a0 Stabilization of the bank utilized two different methods, tree root wad and brush layering, both methods that use natural materials tied back or anchored into the bank to redirect and absorb the stream\u2019s erosive energy at that location.\u00a0 The project also reduced public safety hazards by creating a gradually sloping bank.\u00a0\r\n\r\nA conservation easement, which is a voluntary agreement in which a landowner commits to limit development and certain uses on a property, was established on approximately 14.5 acres of floodplain (the low area next to the stream) to protect the reach of the riverbank and the floodplain.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 A buffer strip was planted with native grasses, flowers, and trees between the golf course and the river to improve water quality by reducing nutrient runoff from the golf course into the river.\u00a0 Exotic, invasive plants (species that are not native to Indiana but are present and spreading quickly) were removed on 10 acres to encourage the growth of native plants.\u00a0 The existing groundwater spring (seep), from which water runs year-round, was enhanced by the removal of grasses and the installation of wetland plant species; this greatly improved the wildlife habitat in this unique area.\u00a0 Interpretive signage was added to also communicate with the public about this distinctive site.\u00a0\r\n\r\nAddress: 1907 Northshore Ext"},"446":{"lat":"39.7342239","lon":"-86.1496962","title":"Garfield Park","content":"

Garfield Park<\/h3>Although it is the oldest park in Indianapolis, Garfield Park continues to stand as a lasting testimony to the importance of beauty, culture and community for visitors and residents alike.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 Garfield Park, the first Indy Park, opened in 1873.\u00a0 Named after President Garfield, the park is 128 acres and includes many amenities including Burrello Family Center, Garfield Arts Center, McAllister Center for the Performing Arts, and a sunken Garden with fountains.\u00a0 Most notable for nature lovers is the Conservatory that houses a wide variety of tropical rain forest species along with beautiful pools and waterfalls.\u00a0 Seasonal programs include interpretive sessions and flower shows like the annual orchid display.\u00a0 Pleasant Run and Bean Creek flow through the park and have had extensive removal of exotic, invasive species (plants that are not native to Indiana but are present and quickly spreading) so that native trees now have reclaimed their original place in the landscape.\u00a0\r\n\r\nAddress: 2345 Pagoda Drive"},"444":{"lat":"39.857887","lon":"-86.0215904","title":"Ft. Harrison State Park","content":"

Ft. Harrison State Park<\/h3>Fort Harrison State Park was created to preserve valuable green space that the Army kept out of development from 1903 to 1996.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 Fort Harrison State Park opened in 1996 after the State of Indiana acquired 1,700 acres of the 2,500 acre military base due to realignments and closures.\u00a0 The land became Fort Harrison State Park, The Fort Golf Course, and The Garrison Restaurant and Conference Center.\u00a0 From 1903 to 1996, the Army managed to keep what is now park property out of development and Fort Harrison State Park continues to preserve the land today.\u00a0 Fort Harrison State Park offers a unique blend of history and native landscape in northeast Indianapolis.\u00a0 The park is visited year round and patrons enjoy woodland wildflowers in the spring, canoe trips down Fall Creek in the summer, beautiful leaf colors in the fall, and sledding in the winter.\u00a0 In addition to its seasonal attractions, the park offers walking and jogging trails, fishing access to Fall Creek, picnic sites, and national historic districts.\r\n\r\nAddress: 5753 Glenn Road"},"442":{"lat":"39.8524476","lon":"-86.2937201","title":"Eagle Creek Park","content":"

Eagle Creek Park<\/h3>Eagle Creek Park was created to increase the quality of life for the public by working with the existing landscape to enhance the natural environment.\u00a0\u00a0 Eagle Creek Park is the 4th largest municipal park in the United States.\u00a0 The park is home to nearly 1,300 acres of water, including Eagle Creek Reservoir, one of the City of Indianapolis' drinking water supply sources.\u00a0 There are also over 3,900 acres of dry land.\u00a0 The land for Eagle Creek Park was purchased by J.K. Lilly of Eli Lilly & Company in 1936 and maintained as a nature preserve.\u00a0 Lilly gave the property to Purdue University in the late 1950's and they then sold it to the City of Indianapolis.\u00a0 In order to control flooding, an earthen dam was constructed resulting in the Eagle Creek reservoir and park known today.\u00a0 Besides the obvious water-based recreation, including fishing and boating, Eagle Creek Park also features two nature centers, 22 miles of hiking trails, a waterfowl sanctuary, a smaller pond, and much more.\u00a0 Visitors are of course welcome to visit Eagle Creek Park.\r\n\r\nAddress: 7480 W 56th St"},"439":{"lat":"40.1933269","lon":"-85.2968901","title":"Delaware County Highway Garage Rain Garden","content":"

Delaware County Highway Garage Rain Garden<\/h3>The Delaware County Highway Garage Rain Garden is an environmentally-friendly stormwater management practice.\u00a0 By intercepting and filtering the large amount of stormwater runoff from the adjacent parking lot, the rain garden is reducing the volume of water and pollutants entering the White River.\u00a0\u00a0 The Delaware County Highway Garage Rain Garden was created and planted in 2010 as part of the Stormwater Utility\u2019s good housekeeping compliance requirements.\u00a0 Such \u2018good housekeeping\u2019 efforts are undertaken by cities and towns in order to ensure they are doing their part on their properties to make a difference for water quality.\u00a0 More than 2,800 native plants were installed in the shallow garden adjacent to the garage's parking lot.\u00a0 The rain garden allows for a large amount of stormwater runoff from this heavily used parking lot to soak into the ground, reduce erosion, and reduce the amount of sediment and nutrients flowing into the White River.\u00a0 It also provides habitat for native songbirds and insect pollinators.\u00a0 Visitors are welcome to visit the Delaware County Highway Garage Rain Garden.\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a0 2010\r\n\r\nAddress: 7700 East Jackson Street"},"424":{"lat":"40.20800018","lon":"-85.40977478000","title":"Ball State University pervious pavement - Johnson Residential Complex Parking","content":"

Ball State University pervious pavement - Johnson Residential Complex Parking<\/h3>Ball State University's use of pervious pavement in two of its parking lots reduces stormwater runoff from these large areas, which ultimately reduces the amount of polluted runoff in the White River. In order to provide a chance for stormwater to seep back into the ground (infiltrate) instead of flow off of parking lots, Ball State University installed pervious pavement strips (strips of special pavement that allow water to pass through them) at several parking lots on campus.\u00a0 Not only does the pervious pavement installed at Scheumann Stadium and Johnson Residential Complex provide infiltration for runoff from the hard (impervious) parking lots, but it also reduces pooling of water in these areas and filters out the pollutants carried in this water.\u00a0 The use of strips of pervious concrete, as opposed to using pervious pavement for the entire lot, reduced costs and maintenance, as well as the risk of clogging the pervious surface.\u00a0 It also allows for heavy vehicles to still utilize the parking lots.\u00a0 Environmentally, the Ball State University pervious pavement applications filter and reduce large volumes of stormwater runoff.\u00a0 Ball State University plans to incorporate pervious pavement in its future construction projects, adding to the environmental benefit.\u00a0\u00a0 Visitors are welcome to visit these pervious pavement applications.\r\n\r\nAddress: Johnson Residential Complex Parking"},"415":{"lat":"40.21601486000","lon":"-85.41679382000","title":"Ball State University pervious pavement - Scheuman Stadium","content":"

Ball State University pervious pavement - Scheuman Stadium<\/h3>Ball State University's use of pervious pavement in two of its parking lots reduces stormwater runoff from these large areas, which ultimately reduces the amount of polluted runoff in the White River. In order to provide a chance for stormwater to seep back into the ground (infiltrate) instead of flow off of parking lots, Ball State University installed pervious pavement strips (strips of special pavement that allow water to pass through them) at several parking lots on campus.\u00a0 Not only does the pervious pavement installed at Scheumann Stadium and Johnson Residential Complex provide infiltration for runoff from the hard (impervious) parking lots, but it also reduces pooling of water in these areas and filters out the pollutants carried in this water.\u00a0 The use of strips of pervious concrete, as opposed to using pervious pavement for the entire lot, reduced costs and maintenance, as well as the risk of clogging the pervious surface.\u00a0 It also allows for heavy vehicles to still utilize the parking lots.\u00a0 Environmentally, the Ball State University pervious pavement applications filter and reduce large volumes of stormwater runoff.\u00a0 Ball State University plans to incorporate pervious pavement in its future construction projects, adding to the environmental benefit.\u00a0\u00a0 Visitors are welcome to visit these pervious pavement applications.\r\n\r\nAddress: Scheuman Stadium"},"410":{"lat":"40.19665600000","lon":"-85.414108","title":"Ball Memorial Hospital Green Roof","content":"

Ball Memorial Hospital Green Roof<\/h3>The Ball Memorial Hospital green roof is an example of a low impact development stormwater management practice that reduces stormwater pollution and volume to the White River. In 2009, Ball Memorial Hospital (BMH) installed a 30,000 square foot green roof on its South Tower.\u00a0 This is the largest green roof in Indiana.\u00a0 The purpose of the BMH green roof is to aid in stormwater management, extend the life of the roof, reduce the heat island effect, provide habitat for wildlife, reduce heating and cooling costs, and increase value.\u00a0 The roof was planted with 5,069 pre-planted modules installed in trays made from 100% recycled plastic. Six different varieties of drought resistant plants (sedums) were planted in a 4 inch deep soil mix to help to soak up rain water and pollutants.\u00a0 Annual maintenance will be needed to make sure the stormwater is soaking in and the plants stay healthy.\u00a0 Any excess rain water that cannot soak into the green roof is directed to the Muncie sanitary sewer system.\u00a0 Students and faculty at nearby Ball State University have proposed research projects and monitoring projects and hope to use this system as an educational tool for the campus and community.\r\n\r\nAddress: 2401 University Ave"},"396":{"lat":"39.67987300000","lon":"-86.1312322","title":"AmeriPlex","content":"

AmeriPlex<\/h3>Ameriplex-Indianapolis is Indiana's first certified Wildlife-Friendly Development.\u00a0 Its native plantings and naturalized retention ponds are reducing runoff and improving the quality of water draining to the White River. AmeriPlex-Indianapolis was started in 2004 and is still developing today.\u00a0 This large scale development has incorporated native landscaping around its buildings, right-of-ways, retention ponds, and undeveloped land.\u00a0 The use of native plants in these areas allows for stormwater to soak into the ground rather than runoff into nearby streams.\u00a0\u00a0 Native plants installed in and around the ponds filter the water in the ponds and water flowing into the ponds from the surrounding landscape.\u00a0 The use of native plants and natural areas makes AmeriPlex-Indianapolis an example of environmental stewardship, not only by reducing and improving large amounts of dirty stormwater running off parking lots, streets, and rooftops, but also by demonstrating to users and visitors that native plantings can be beautiful, functional, and beneficial, even in an urban commercial or industrial setting.\u00a0 Visitors are more than welcome to visit AmeriPlex-Indianapolis and learn from its example.\u00a0\u00a0 In October of 2007, the Indiana Wildlife Federation certified it as the state's first Wildlife-Friendly Development.\r\n\r\nDate Project was Installed: 2007\r\n\r\nAddress: 5770 Decatur Blvd"},"135":{"lat":"39.98348300000","lon":"-86.02546000000","title":"Conner Prairie ","content":"

Conner Prairie <\/h3>The purpose of Conner Prairie is to connect people with history in ways books cannot.\u00a0 Aside from providing this important historical service, Conner Prairie also provides wildlife habitat and protection from water pollution.\u00a0\u00a0 The forgotten homestead of William Conner was purchased by Eli Lilly in 1934 because he believed that history was an essential cornerstone to American democracy.\u00a0 The property was soon opened to the public where they could view historical reenactments of their heritage brought to life.\u00a0 Since then, Conner Prairie has progressed into a \"living history museum\" where staff dress, act, and speak as if in the time period portrayed.\u00a0 Today it is known as an \"Interactive History Park\" where families can experience what it was like to live in Indiana's past.\u00a0 Environmental stewardship has always been a top priority of Conner Prairie.\u00a0 Conner Prairie preserves 850 acres of land in Hamilton County including 6 miles of streambank along the White River.\u00a0 Conner Prairie staff and volunteers participate annually in White River clean-up events.\u00a0 Recycling, land stewardship, and environmentally sustainable programming have been a part of the daily guest experience at Conner Prairie for decades.\u00a0 Today, a 45-foot wind turbine, 22 solar panels, and 200-acre prairie grassland restoration continue the green initiatives of Conner Prairie.\r\nDate Project was Installed:\u00a0 1934\r\n\r\nAddress: 13400 Allisonville Road"},"133":{"lat":"39.96871120000\r\n","lon":"-86.13123220000","title":"Carmel Central Park ","content":"

Carmel Central Park <\/h3>Central Park was created to improve the quality of life for Carmel residents while also working with the existing landscape to enhance the natural environment and incorporate sustainable green infrastructure into its overall design.\u00a0\u00a0\u00a0 As with most parks, Central Park was created to increase the quality of life of the area; however, the designers wanted to incorporate the existing landscape into the design of the park in order to enhance the natural environment and improve water quality as well.\u00a0 Stormwater runoff from parking lots and other hard surface is managed within the park through practices known as green infrastructure.\u00a0 Green infrastructure includes treating stormwater through landscape features that include native plants and fast draining soils.\u00a0 These systems are designed to clean and keep runoff from most rain events on the site in order to prevent downstream flooding and pollution.\u00a0\u00a0 This concept was important to the design of the 161 acre park and is apparent when looking at its unique parking lot islands.\u00a0 Wetlands were also restored and enhanced with additional plantings after it was determined that multiple types of wetlands were already present within the park.\u00a0 There are now over 20 acres of forested and non-forested wetlands on site that capture, filter, and help reduce the impacts of stormwater on nearby streams.\u00a0\u00a0 In addition, acres of native prairie grasses were planted instead of traditional turf grasses to also help capture, filter, and soak up runoff and to create wildlife habitat. Now home to deer, fox, migratory birds, and diverse aquatic life, Central Park is also the first Indiana park to be designated as a Certified Wildlife Habitat by the Indiana Wildlife Federation.\r\n\r\nAddress: 760 3rd Ave SW #100"},"131":{"lat":"39.86893740000","lon":"-86.13526860000","title":"Broad Ripple Park ","content":"

Broad Ripple Park <\/h3>Broad Ripple Park was created to increase the quality of life for the public while also working with the existing landscape to enhance the natural environment.\u00a0 In 1946, Broad Ripple Park was established as a community park along an old river channel (an oxbow) of the White River.\u00a0 In addition to the park\u2019s stream-side corridor, other natural features are present, including a forested wetland at the north end of the park with many unique wetland plant species, including the somewhat rare pink turtlehead.\u00a0 Grassed areas of the park are planted with a variety of native trees, including very large tulip poplar and blue ash, and the rare butternut.\u00a0\u00a0 A 10-acre remnant of hardwood forest exists on an old terrace of the White River within the park.\u00a0 Common floodplain species such as sycamore, red maple, silver maple, and cottonwood are present on this remnant, as well as species found in upland areas, like American beech, white ash, sugar maple, and black cherry.\u00a0 One of the biggest environmental challenges for the park is controlling exotic, invasive plant species, especially Amur honeysuckle and wintercreeper.\u00a0 Exotic, invasive species of plants are ones that are not native to Indiana but are present and spreading quickly, crowding out everything else that would typically grow in an area.\r\n\r\nAddress: 1550 Broad Ripple Ave"}}}